1st & 2nd Kings
Torah Class Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.
Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective Video Messages
Melachim A. Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of 1 Kings from the Jewish Publication Society Bible
Melachim B. Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of 2 Kings from the Jewish Publication Society Bible
Introduction to the Book of Kings Roger Hahn
1 and 2 Kings Bible Study Roger Hahn
Old Testament History and Recent Archaeology from Moses to David Gleason L Archer Jr
The Early Kings of Israel – A Kingdom Divided Mario Seiglie
The Later Kings of Israel – A Kingdom’s Downfall Mario Seiglie
The Early Kings of Judah – Miraculous Deliverance Mario Seiglie
Sacral Kingship–The Old Testament Background Arthur C. Cundall
A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Kings James A. Montgomery
Kings and Chronicles: Interpreting Historical Interpretation Allen R. Guenther
The Book of Kings in Recent Research Part 1 Michael Avioz
The Book of Kings in Recent Research Part 2 Michael Avioz
The Conquest of Power: Analysis of David and Solomon’s Accession Histories Caetano Minette de Tillesse
‘Bamoth’ in the Old Testament John T. Whitney
Israelite Kings Date Chart Dennis Bratcher provides a chart of the reigns of kings of the United Monarchy and the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the fall of Jerusalem (1050 – 586 BC), color coded to show good and bad kings, as well as those deposed or assassinated.
Kings and Prophets in the Northern and Southern Kingdoms a listing of the Kings and their characters
The United Monarchy Under David and Solomon Gary A. Byers
1 Kings 1:1-2:12 Roger Hahn
Regal/Messianic Hope in Deuteronomy, 1, 2 Samuel, and 1, 2 Kings Dr. Greg Herrick
The Matriarchate and the Hebrew Regal Succession Roland K. Harrison
History – The Rise of Babylon and Exile (640 BC-538 BC) Dennis Bratcher
The Rise of Babylon Waning Assyrian Power Josiah (640-609) and Religious Reforms Jehoahaz (609) Babylonian Control of Judah Jehoikim (609-598) Jehoichin [Jeconiah] (598) Zedekiah [Mattaniah] (598-587)
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Old Testament History – Assyrian Dominance (745 BC-640 BC) Dennis Bratcher
Kings and Prophets 1: The Early Monarchy Barry L. Bandstra explains how Kings is a continuation of the Deuteronomistic History, which traces its pedigree back to Deuteronomy. It shares a basic theological perspective with the other books of the Deuteronomistic History.
Kings and Prophets 2: The Assyrian Crisis Barry L. Bandstra Israelite prophecy tends to coagulate around periods of political insecurity and crisis. The eighth century BCE was just that for the Israelites and Judeans, largely because of the expansion of the neo-Assyrian empire
Kings and Prophets 3: The Babylonian Crisis Barry L. Bandstra The Babylonian period, technically referred to by historians as the neo-Babylonian period, extended from around 630 to 539 BCE (see Table 11.1). The Babylonians of this period are also referred to as Chaldeans.
The Bible and Archaeology: The Early Kings of Israel – A Kingdom Divided. Mario Seiglie examines the break up of Israel and looks at evidence in support of the 10 tribes and goes on to look at the nation of Judah.
Old Testament History and Recent Archeology from Solomon to Zedekiah Gleason L Archer Jr
The Kings of Israel from the Jewish Virtual Library collection.
The Kings of Judah from the Jewish Virtual Library collection.
The Golden Calves and the Egyptian Concept of Deity John. N. Oswalt
King Jewish Encyclopedia
I and II Kings Kenneth A. Kitchen
Kingdoms of the Lord. A History of the Hebrew Kingdoms David F. Payne
Simeon, the Tenth Tribe of Israel Leon J. Wood
Kings and Chronicles: Interpreting Historical Interpretation Allen R. Guenther The church and its scholars have also struggled with the presence of two roughly parallel histories of Israel’s monarchy.
Issues in Text and Translation Technique in the Gamma-Gamma Section of 3 Reigns (1 Kings) Andrzej Szymon Turkanik, Scholoss Mittersill
Studies in the Syntax of the Peshitta of 1 Kings P. J. Williams
The Date of the Downfall of Samaria Willis Judson Beecher
2 Kings Kings was compiled to provide an assessment of the reigns of various kings based on their faithfulness to God’s covenants. The standard of excellence to which worthy rulers were compared was David while Jeroboam I became the standard for evil. The national welfare was integrally related to the obedience and disobedience of the kings and their people to the covenants God had made with his people. Division of Student Ministry Baptist General Convention of Texas
1 Kings 2:13-3:28 Roger Hahn The first two chapters of 1 Kings are devoted to the transition from the rule of King David to that of King Solomon. Chapters 3-11 are devoted to describing the reign of Solomon.
1 Kings 4:1-6:22 Roger Hahn Dealing with Solomon the Administrator while his building activities are described in 1 Kings 5:1-9:25.
Solomon in All His Glory Alan Millard
1 Kings 8:12-9:14 Roger Hahn First Kings 8 is the centerpiece of the books of 1 and 2 Kings. Literarily it represents the climax of the picture of Solomon’s wisdom that has been presented since 1 Kings 3. Theologically, the prayer of dedication, though prayed by Solomon, represents the central teaching of the author of 1 Kings.
When did Solomon die? Rodger C. Young
Regal Messianic Hope in Deuteronomy, 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings Gregg Herrick studies regal and messianic hope in the Old Testament because Jesus linked so much of his identity and ministry to messianic and regal hopes.
The Conquest of Power: Analysis of David and Solomon’s Accession Histories Caetano Minette de Tillesse explains how the final form of this account must have been written in the 10th century BC.
Elijah Jewish Encyclopedia
Elijah David Mandel
Elijah Robert I. Bradshaw
Elijah & Elisha Anne-Marie Belinfante
Elijah’s Plea No. 1832 Charles Haddon Spurgeon
1 Kings 19: The Renewal of Elijah Dan Epp-Tiessen
The Life and Times of Elijah the Prophet— Elijah Throws in the Towel (1 Kings 18:45-19:21) Bob Deffinbaugh
The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet – What It Takes to Make a Prophet Weep (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:7-15) Bob Deffinbaugh
- Preface to the Life of Elijah
- 1. Introduction and Historical Setting for Elijah
- 2. The Man Elijah (1 Kings 17:1)
- 3. The Message of Elijah (1 Kings 17:1)
- 4. Testings By the Brook (Part 1) (1 Kings 17:2-7)
- 5. Testings By the Brook (Part 2) (1 Kings 17:4-7)
- 6. Testings and Ministry at Zaraphath (1 Kings 17:8-16)
- 7. The Death and Resurrection of the Widow’s Son (1 Kings 17:17-24)
- 8. The Word of the Lord Comes to Elijah (1 Kings 18:1-6)
- 9. Elijah Ministers to Obadiah (1 Kings 18:7-15)
- 10. Elijah Meets and Rebukes Ahab (1 Kings 18:16-19)
- 11. When One Becomes a Majority (1 Kings 18:19-22)
- 12. The Ineffectual Prayers of the Baal Priests (1 Kings 18:23-29)
- 13. The Prayers of Elijah (1 Kings 18:30-46)
- 14. The Vulnerability of Victory (1 Kings 19)
- 15. The Crisis of Elijah (1 Kings 19:4-14)
- 16. The Restoration of Elijah (1 Kings 19:5-18)
- 17. Taking Up Your Mantle (1 Kings 19:19-21)
- 18. The Translation of Elijah–Part 1 (2 Kings 2:1-11)
- 19. The Translation of Elijah–Part 2 (2 Kings 2:1-11)
- 20. The Doctrine of Suffering
- 21. Hindrances to Prayer
The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet� Three �Birds� with One Stone (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:16-9:37) Bob Deffinbaugh
- 1. Casting Shadows
- 2. Elisha’s Response to Elijah’s Translation (2 Kings 2:12-15)
- 3. The Waters of Jericho Purified (2 Kings 2:18-22)
- 4. Elisha and the Two Bears (2 Kings 2:23-25)
- 5. The Rebellion of the Moabites (2 Kings 3:1-12)
- 6. Elisha Prepares to Hear God’s Word (2 Kings 3:13-15)
- 7. The Victory Over Moab (2 Kings 3:16-27)
- 8. God’s Supply in the Midst of Poverty (2 Kings 4:1-7)
- 9. The Shunammite Woman Receives a Son (2 Kings 4:8-17)
- 10. The Shunammite’s Son Resurrected (2 Kings 4:18-37; Hebrews 11:35)
- 11. Death in the Pot (2 Kings 4:38-41)
- 12. The Miracle of the Bread (2 Kings 4:42-44)
- 13. The Healing of Naaman (2 Kings 5:1-19)
- 14. The Sin of Covetousness (2 Kings 5:20-27)
- 15. The Lost Axe Head (2 Kings 6:1-7)
- 16. Surrounded by the Enemy (2 Kings 6:8-23)
- 17. Final Episodes in the Life of Elisha (2 Kings 6:24-7:20)
The Prophet Elijah in Jewish Liturgy Nello Pavoncello
Elijah’s Sleeping Baal H. Jacobson
Notes for Teachers: Elijah Mary Travers
A Note on Ellijah’s “Fire from Yahweh” Jon Ruthven
1 Kings 6:23-8:11 Roger Hahn First Kings 6 and 7 describe the temple that was built by orders of King Solomon. When combined with the description of 2 Chronicles 3:1-5:1 the Old Testament provides the most detailed text describing any ancient building.
The ‘Molten Sea’, or Is It? Seung Il Kang
1 Kings 9:15-11:25 Roger Hahn Following God’s response to the dedication of the temple in 1 Kings 9:1-9, the author turns in verses 10-25 to describe other building projects under Solomon’s reign.
Essential Points In Prayer No. 2064 Charles Haddon Spurgeon
Developing A Giving Heart Sid Litke
1 Kings 11:26-13:32 Roger Hahn After portraying Solomon’s rise to power, his prayer for discernment and understanding, and the unrivaled successes that Solomon enjoyed, the author of 1 Kings concludes his treatment of Solomon by revealing Solomon the sinner in chapter 11
Queen of Sheba Jewish Encyclopedia
Queen of Sheba Wikipedia
Samaritan Hospitality (I KINGS 13) Stuart R. Jones
1 Kings 13:33-16:14 Roger Hahn The reign of Jeroboam is portrayed as a negative image of Solomon’s reign. Solomon’s great achievements and the spiritual promise of his life are laid out in great detail in 1 Kings 3-10 with only a few hints that spiritual disaster was lurking.
Jeroboam Jewish Encyclopedia
Jeroboam David Mandel
Jeroboam’s Rise to Power Ralph W. Klein
Josephus’ Portrait of Jeroboam Louis H. Feldman
Rehoboam Jewish Encyclopedia
1 Kings 16:15-18:16 Roger Hahn The pace shifts in chapters 15 and 16. In the space of those two chapters the author present the reigns of Abijam and Asa in the Southern Kingdom and Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Omri, and Ahab in the Northern Kingdom.
Asa Jewish Encyclopedia
Josephus’ Portrait of Asa Louis H. Feldman
Connecting to God through Giving Sid Litke
- 1. The Honeymoon Is Over – The Story of Adam and Eve
- 2. Yes, My Lord – The Story of Abraham and Sarah
- 3. Talk to Me – The Story of Isaac and Rebekah
- 4. Never Satisfied! – The Story of Jacob and Rachel
- 5. Two to Get Ready – The Story of Boaz and Ruth
- 6. Caught in the Tempter’s Trap -The Story of David and Bathsheba
- 7. My Way – The Story of Ahab and Jezebel
- 8. Undying Love – The Story of Hosea and Gomer
- 9. For Such a Time as This – The Story of Ahasuerus and Esther
- 10. Impossible Things Do Happen -The Story of Zacharias and Elizabeth
- 11. Do You Trust Me? – The Story of Joseph and Mary
- 12. Be Honest -The Story of Ananias and Sapphira
- 13. Side by Side The Story of Aquila and Priscilla
Jezebel Jewish Encyclopedia
The “Jezebel Spirit”: A Scholarly Inquiry Trudie Stark and Hans J.M. van Deventer
1 Kings 18:17-20:21 Roger Hahn Chapter 18 of 1 Kings brings to a conclusion the battle between Yahweh and Baal over rain.
Omri Jewish Encyclopedia
Omri King of Israel Bryant G. Wood
Jezebel’s Oath (1 Kgs 19,2) Robert J. Merecz
Elijah’s Sleeping Baal H Jacobson explains how Elijah’s words may recall some cultic awakening of the deity in morning rites.
God in the Quietness 1 Kings 19:1-8 Dennis Bratcher
1 Kings 20:22-22:28 Roger Hahn The closing chapters of 1 Kings and the opening chapters of 2 Kings are a confusing collection of stories about Elijah, Elisha, Ahab, Ahab’s successors, the interaction of Aram (Syria) and Israel, and Jehoshaphat. The literary purpose of the section appears to be to show the circumstances leading to the fulfillment of God’s commission to Elijah in 1 Kings 19:15-18.
Finding Financial Contentment Sid Litke
Life for Land (I Kings 21:1-29) Stuart R. Jones
1 Kings 22:29-2 Kings 2:25 Roger Hahn First Kings 22 brings to a close the reign of King Ahab in the Northern Kingdom. Chapters 20 and 21 had anticipated his death by giving specific reasons that the judgment of God would fall upon Ahab.
The Primary History (Genesis – 2 Kings), an Exilic Composition of 562 – 561 BCE Walter Mattfeld focuses on Deuteronomy 30:1-10 and explores the theory the idea that the Primary History was written by one author in the exile and notes that some sites appearing in Joshua did not come into existence until late in the 7th century BCE.
The Portrayal of Prophets in 2 Kings 2 Mark O’Brien
A Response to West J. Edward Wright
Elisha the Prophet Dennis Bratcher Elisha, whose name means “El [God] is salvation”), was a prophet of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. He who was active for a period of some fifty years (c. 850-800 BC) during the reigns of Joram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, and Jehoash (Joash). Elisha was the successor and disciple of Elijah.
Elisha Jewish Encyclopedia
Elisha Robert I. Bradshaw
The Elisha Narratives and Coherence of 2 Kings 2-8 Philip E. Satterthwaite
The Elisha Stories as Saint’s Legends Yael Shemesh
2 Kings 3: History or Historical Fiction? Joe M. Sprinkle
2 Kings 3:1-4:44 Roger Hahn Second Kings 3 and 4 continue the stories in the Elisha cycle of material. Chapter 2 had described the way in which Elisha became the successor of Elijah and the verification of his authority from God through several miracles of authentication.
A Forgotten Cultic Reform? 2 Kings 3:2b Andre Lemaire
The Meaning of II Kings 3:27 George M. Harton
Learning and Teaching Stewardship Sid Litke
Elisha and the Miraculous Jug of Oil (2 Kgs 4:1-7) Yael Shemesh
God’s Giving Promises Sid Litke
Naaman and the Wild God of Israel Michael A. King
2 Kings 5:1-7:20 Roger Hahn Elisha’s death is narrated in 2 Kings 13:14-21. Within that span of chapters, Elisha is the major figure in 2 Kings 2-8. The ministry of Elisha is generally dated from approximately 850 BC to 800 BC.
A Brief Moment for a One-Person Remnant (2 Kings 5:2-3) Walter Brueggemann,
The Embarrassing Footnote Walter Brueggmann The books of Kings embody the tension between the canon of certitude and footnotes of hurt and amazement. A tale of transformation in which the enemy is transformed into a festival partner who goes peaceably away.
2 Kings 8:1-10:17 Roger Hahn he focus of 1 and 2 Kings has been on the prophets Elijah and Elisha from 1 Kings 17 through 2 Kings 8. Though there have been sections that recounted battles and the summaries of kings, most of the material has dealt with the two prophets.
The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet What It Takes to Make a Prophet Weep (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:7-15) Bob Deffinbaugh
2 Kings 10:18-13:9 Roger Hahn The writer trying to make sense of the devastating loss of the temple, the Davidic kingship, and the land of Israel. The first eleven chapters depict Solomon in great splendor, they also reveal the seeds of disobedience that would yield the devastating harvest of exile.
A New Historical Reconstruction of the Fall of Samaria Sung Jin Park
Why Did the Northern Kingdom Fall According to 2 Kings 15? Peter Dubovsky
The Chronology of 2 Kings 15-18 Andrew E. Steinmann
Hezekiah Jewish Encyclopedia
Hezekiah David Mandel
Hezekiah Robert I. Bradshaw
Trust in the Lord’: Hezekiah, Kings and Isaiah John W. Olley
New Light on Hezekiah’s Second Prophetic Story 2 Kings 19: 9-35. Nadav Na’aman suggests that the Deuteronomist combined chronistic and narrative early texts and integrated them into his composition of the history of Israel.
Did Sennacherib Campaign Once or Twice Against Hezekiah Siegfriend H. Horn
Sennacherib’s Attack on Hezekiah Alan R. Millard
The Openness of God: Does Prayer Change God? William D. Barrick
Amon Jewish Encyclopedia
Jotham and Amon: Two Minor Kings of Judah According to Josephus Christopher T. Begg
A Note on the Personal Name Amon Dominic Rudman examines some of the biographical information on Amon – Manasseh’s son.
Ahab Jewish Encyclopedia
Ahab Robert I. Bradshaw
Ahab the Israelite Bryant G. Wood
Exploring the Garden of Uzza: Death, Burial and Ideologies of Kingship Francesca Stavrakopoulou
Josiah’s Reform and the Book of the Law Donald W.B. Robinson
“Jehoiakim Slept with his Fathers…” (II Kings 24:6) -Did He? Oded Lipschits, Journal of Hebrew Scriptures – Volume 4: Article 1 (2002)
The Fate of Jehoiakim Alberto R.W. Green
Nebuchadnezzar Jewish Encyclopedia
Nebuchadnezzar David Mandel
An Overlooked Message – The Critique of Kings and Affirmation of Equality in the Primeval History Robert K Gnuse The Primeval History in Genesis 2-11 contains symbolic polyvalent narratives with diverse levels of interpretive possibility. One meaningful level of interpretation is to see how the accounts contain a strident critique of kingship, especially the social economic abuses perpetrated by kings. Kings who receive the strident barbs of the author include not only Mesopotamian rulers, but also, by implication, the rulers of Israel and Judah, who likewise abused their powers. This exilic critique of kings is also, in turn, part of the great biblical message affirming human equality and dignity, and it speaks a powerful egalitarian word to any age.