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  1st & 2nd Kings

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 Biblical Training - FRee Bible Classes to Help You Grow Spiritually My current study resources – Free sign up allows access to all classes to degree level.

      Torah Class    Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.  

Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective  Video Messages  

Melachim A. Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of 1 Kings from the Jewish Publication Society Bible

Melachim B.  Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of 2 Kings from the Jewish Publication Society Bible  

Kings – Jewish Encyclopedia  

Melachim 1 – Kings 1  and   Melachim 2 – Kings 2 text with Rashi’s commentary – Complete Jewish Bible  

Kings 1 – Expositor’s Bible Commentary  

Kings 2 – Expositor’s Bible Commentary  

Notes on 1st Kings  Thomas L. Constable. Explains how the Septuagint in about 250BC was the first to separate Kings into two books.  

Notes on 2nd Kings  Thomas L. Constable. A sequel to 1st Kings covering about three centuries. Revelation of the failure of man and the victory of God.  

Contemporary English Version (CEV) (Book of Kings) On-Line  

New International Version (NIV) (Book of Kings) On-Line  

New English Translation (NET) (Book of Kings) On-Line

New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) (Book of Kings) On-Line  

Kings 1   and   Kings 2at Luther Seminary’s Enter the Bible. Study basics about Bible books, people, dates, places.

Kings Wikipedia

Kings  Walk Thru the Bible

Kings 1   and   Kings 2 – Geneva Study Bible

Kings 1   and   Kings 2 – Matthew Henry’s Commentary

Kings 1   and   Kings 2 – Wesley’s Explanatory Notes

Kings 1   and   Kings 2 – Robert Jamieson’s Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the whole Bible

Kings 1   and   Kings 2 – Scofield Reference Notes

Kings – Dr Bob Utley            Video Bible Commentary

Kings 1   and   Kings 2  – World Wide Study Bible

Kings 1   and   Kings 2  – Bible Notes  


Introduction to the Book of Kings        Roger Hahn    

1 and 2 Kings Bible Study     Roger Hahn

Introduction to 1& 2  Kings David Malick

  An Argument of 1& 2 Kings David Malick  

The Historical Books                      J. Hampton Keathley III

Old Testament History and Recent Archaeology from Moses to David      Gleason L Archer Jr

The Early Kings of Israel – A Kingdom Divided                   Mario Seiglie   

The Later Kings of Israel – A Kingdom’s Downfall              Mario Seiglie    

The Early Kings of Judah – Miraculous Deliverance            Mario Seiglie 

Sacral Kingship–The Old Testament Background     Arthur C. Cundall

A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Kings     James A. Montgomery

Kings and Chronicles: Interpreting Historical Interpretation               Allen R. Guenther

The Book of Kings in Recent Research Part 1  Michael Avioz

The Book of Kings in Recent Research Part 2   Michael Avioz

A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles     Leslie McFall

The Conquest of Power: Analysis of David and Solomon’s Accession Histories     Caetano Minette de Tillesse

‘Bamoth’ in the Old Testament        John T. Whitney

Israelite Prophets Date Chart  Dennis Bratcher  provides a chart of the ministry dates of the major prophets of the Old Testament.  

Israelite Kings Date Chart  Dennis Bratcher  provides a chart of the reigns of kings of the United Monarchy and the Divided Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the fall of Jerusalem (1050 – 586 BC), color coded to show good and bad kings, as well as those deposed or assassinated.  

Kings and Prophets in the Northern and Southern Kingdoms a listing of the Kings and their characters  

The United Monarchy Under David and Solomon      Gary A. Byers

Death Formulae and the Burial Place of the Kings of the House of David      Nadav Na’aman

Let Go and Let Others                       Bob Deffinbaugh

1 Kings 1:1-2:12      Roger Hahn    

Solomon is the major character of 1 Kings 1-12.

1 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Psalms (Solomon Rises to Power)              David Colburn

Ecclesiastes, 1 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Proverbs (Solomon Reflects)                         David Colburn

Regal/Messianic Hope in Deuteronomy, 1, 2 Samuel, and 1, 2 Kings      Dr. Greg Herrick  

1 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Psalms, Proverbs (Solomon Builds Temple and Palace and Gathers Great Wealth)             David Colburn  

The Matriarchate and the Hebrew Regal Succession      Roland K. Harrison

History – The Rise of Babylon and Exile (640 BC-538 BC)       Dennis Bratcher

The Rise of Babylon Waning Assyrian Power Josiah (640-609) and Religious Reforms            Jehoahaz (609) Babylonian Control of Judah Jehoikim (609-598)    Jehoichin [Jeconiah] (598)    Zedekiah [Mattaniah] (598-587)

Fact and Fiction in the Ancient Near East: The Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, the Babylonian Chronicles, and the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible Jens Bruun Kofoed, SEE-J Hiphil,  

‘Trust in the Lord’: Hezekiah, Kings and Isaiah    J.W. Olley  

Prolegomena to the Study of Kings   James E. Smith

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Kings and Prophets: The Early Monarchy  Barry L. Bandstra

Kings and Prophets 2: The Assyrian Crisis  Barry L. Bandstra

Old Testament History – Assyrian Dominance (745 BC-640 BC)     Dennis Bratcher

The Rise of Assyria     

The Last Days of the Northern Kingdom      

Zechariah and Shallum   


The Syro-Ephraimitic coalition   

Hoshea and the end       

The Assyrian Crisis and the Southern Kingdom       






Kings and Prophets 1: The Early Monarchy   Barry L. Bandstra      explains how Kings is a continuation of the Deuteronomistic History, which traces its pedigree back to Deuteronomy. It shares a basic theological perspective with the other books of the Deuteronomistic History.

Kings and Prophets 2: The Assyrian Crisis     Barry L. Bandstra  Israelite prophecy tends to coagulate around periods of political insecurity and crisis.    The eighth century BCE was just that for the Israelites and Judeans, largely because of the expansion of the neo-Assyrian empire

Kings and Prophets 3: The Babylonian Crisis       Barry L. Bandstra    The Babylonian period, technically referred to by historians as the neo-Babylonian period, extended from around 630 to 539 BCE (see Table 11.1). The Babylonians of this period are also referred to as Chaldeans.  

The Bible and Archaeology: The Early Kings of Israel – A Kingdom Divided. Mario Seiglie examines the break up of Israel and looks at evidence in support of the 10 tribes and goes on to look at the nation of Judah.  

Old Testament History and Recent Archeology from Solomon to Zedekiah     Gleason L Archer Jr

The Book of Kings: Religion Meets Geo-Politics, Ancient Style      Shawn Aster  

The Kings of Israel from the Jewish Virtual Library collection.  

The Kings of Judah  from the Jewish Virtual Library collection.

The Golden Calves and the Egyptian Concept of Deity      John. N. Oswalt  

King   Jewish Encyclopedia

I and II Kings     Kenneth A. Kitchen

The Message of the Book of Kings in Relation to Deuteronomy and Jeremiah       Gershon Galil

Kingdoms of the Lord. A History of the Hebrew Kingdoms     David F. Payne

Simeon, the Tenth Tribe of Israel     Leon J. Wood  

Kings and Chronicles: Interpreting Historical Interpretation  Allen R. Guenther  The church and its scholars have also struggled with the presence of two roughly parallel histories of Israel’s monarchy. 

Issues in Text and Translation Technique in the Gamma-Gamma Section of 3 Reigns (1 Kings)     Andrzej Szymon Turkanik, Scholoss Mittersill

Studies in the Syntax of the Peshitta of 1 Kings     P. J. Williams

The Date of the Downfall of Samaria     Willis Judson Beecher

The Reign of Solomon (1 Kings 1-11)              Bob Deffinbaugh  

1 Kings A 1:1 – 11:43  

1 Kings B 12:1-2,  9:10     

2 Kings  Kings was compiled to provide an assessment of the reigns of various kings based on their faithfulness to God’s covenants. The standard of excellence to which worthy rulers were compared was David while Jeroboam I became the standard for evil. The national welfare was integrally related to the obedience and disobedience of the kings and their people to the covenants God had made with his people. Division of Student Ministry Baptist General Convention of Texas

1 Kings 2:13-3:28        Roger Hahn       The first two chapters of 1 Kings are devoted to the transition from the rule of King David to that of King Solomon. Chapters 3-11 are devoted to describing the reign of Solomon.     

1 Kings 4:1-6:22                Roger Hahn       Dealing with Solomon the Administrator while his building activities are described in 1 Kings 5:1-9:25.

1 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Psalms, Proverbs (Solomon Builds Temple and Palace and Gathers Great Wealth) Solomon      Jewish Encyclopedia  

Solomon       Wikepedia  

Pharaoh’s Daughter, Solomon’s Palace, and the Temple: Another Look at the Structure of 1 Kings 1-11      J. W. Olley  

Solomon in All His Glory      Alan Millard

Texts and Archaeology: Weighing The Evidence. The Case for King Solomon       Alan R Millard

The Characterization of Solomon in Solomon’s Prayer (1 Kings 8)     Michael Avioz

1 Kings 8:12-9:14          Roger Hahn     First Kings 8 is the centerpiece of the books of 1 and 2 Kings. Literarily it represents the climax of the picture of Solomon’s wisdom that has been presented since 1 Kings 3. Theologically, the prayer of dedication, though prayed by Solomon, represents the central teaching of the author of 1 Kings.   

Big Dreams and Broken Promises: Solomon’s Treaty with Hiram in Its International Context      Michael S. Moore

When did Solomon die?      Rodger C. Young  

Regal Messianic Hope in Deuteronomy, 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings  Gregg Herrick studies regal and messianic hope in the Old Testament because Jesus linked so much of his identity and ministry to messianic and regal hopes.  

Counterfeit Davids: Davidic Restoration and the Architecture of 1-2 Kings      Peter J. Leithart  

Why Barzillai Of Gilead (1 Kings 2:7)?: Narrative Art and the Hermeneutics of Suspicion in 1 Kings 1-2     Iain W. Provan  

The Conquest of Power: Analysis of David and Solomon’s Accession Histories Caetano Minette de Tillesse explains how the final form of this account must have been written in the 10th century BC.  

1 Kings, 2 Chronicles (Various Kings Rise and Fall)          David Colburn  

1 Kings, 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Obadiah, Psalms (Jehosophat, Ahab, and the Prophet Elijah)                       David Colburn  

Elijah   Jewish Encyclopedia  

Elijah   Wikipedia  

Elijah    David Mandel  

Elijah      Robert I. Bradshaw 

Elijah & Elisha      Anne-Marie Belinfante  

Elijah’s Plea No. 1832                    Charles Haddon Spurgeon  

The Life and Times of Elijah the Prophet – The Prophet and the Pagans (1 Kings 16:29-17:24)             Bob Deffinbaugh  

The Life and Times of Elijah the Prophet – Showdown at the Mount Carmel Corral (1 Kings 18:1-46)          Bob Deffinbaugh  

1 Kings 19: The Renewal of Elijah                           Dan Epp-Tiessen

The Life and Times of Elijah the Prophet— Elijah Throws in the Towel (1 Kings 18:45-19:21)        Bob Deffinbaugh  

The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet – What It Takes to Make a Prophet Weep (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:7-15)         Bob Deffinbaugh  

The Life and Times of Elijah the Prophet – Israel’s Deliverance (1 Kings 20:1-43)         Bob Deffinbaugh  

The Life and Times of Elijah the Prophet – Ahab “Buys the Farm” or “Payday Someday”(1 Kings 21:1-22:40)           Bob Deffinbaugh  

Studies in the Life of Elijah  J. Hampton Keathley III,  provides practical insight into the doctrinal and spiritual significance and meaning of the life of Elijah over 19 studies.

The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet� Three �Birds� with One Stone (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:16-9:37)              Bob Deffinbaugh       

Studies in the Life of Elisha  J. Hampton Keathley III,,   examines the life of Elisha over 17 studies.


The Prophet Elijah in Jewish Liturgy       Nello Pavoncello  

Gleanings – The Prophet Elijah   Elijah in Kabbalah and Mysticism     M. J. Stlassny  

Elijah’s Sleeping Baal      H. Jacobson  

Elijah – A Victorious, Persecuted, Discouraged Prophet – First of a Long Line (1 Judgs 17-19)     Michel De Goedt  

Elijah the Peacemaker – Jewish and Early Christian Interpretations of Malachi 3_23-24     Lawrence Frizzell  

Notes for Teachers: Elijah      Mary Travers  

A Note on Ellijah’s “Fire from Yahweh”       Jon Ruthven

1 Kings 6:23-8:11                  Roger Hahn     First Kings 6 and 7 describe the temple that was built by orders of King Solomon. When combined with the description of 2 Chronicles 3:1-5:1 the Old Testament provides the most detailed text describing any ancient building.

Big Dreams and Broken Promises: Solomon’s Treaty with Hiram in Its International Context    Michael S. Moore  

The ‘Molten Sea’, or Is It?     Seung Il Kang  

The Dimensions and Capacity of the ‘Molten Sea’ in 1 Kings 7:23-26   The Book of Jashar

1 Kings 9:15-11:25            Roger Hahn                Following God’s response to the dedication of the temple in 1 Kings 9:1-9, the author turns in verses 10-25 to describe other building projects under Solomon’s reign.

Essential Points In Prayer No. 2064                  Charles Haddon Spurgeon

Developing A Giving Heart               Sid Litke

1 Kings 11:26-13:32      Roger Hahn     After portraying Solomon’s rise to power, his prayer for discernment and understanding, and the unrivaled successes that Solomon enjoyed, the author of 1 Kings concludes his treatment of Solomon by revealing Solomon the sinner in chapter 11

The Great Divorce: The Kingdom Divided (1 Kings 12; 2 Chronicles 10)                 Bob Deffinbaugh  

Queen of Sheba     Jewish Encyclopedia  

Queen of Sheba    Wikipedia  

Samaritan Hospitality (I KINGS 13)      Stuart R. Jones

1 Kings 13:33-16:14          Roger Hahn          The reign of Jeroboam is portrayed as a negative image of Solomon’s reign. Solomon’s great achievements and the spiritual promise of his life are laid out in great detail in 1 Kings 3-10 with only a few hints that spiritual disaster was lurking.  

Jeroboam      Jewish Encyclopedia  

Jeroboam      Wikipedia  

Jeroboam      David Mandel

Jeroboam’s Rise to Power      Ralph W. Klein

Josephus’ Portrait of Jeroboam     Louis H. Feldman      

A Case for Domestic Abuse in 1 Kings 14? A Look at the Marriage of Jeroboam I     Robin Gallaher  

Rehoboam     Jewish Encyclopedia  

Rehoboam      Wikipedia

1 Kings 16:15-18:16      Roger Hahn      The pace shifts in chapters 15 and 16. In the space of those two chapters the author present the reigns of Abijam and Asa in the Southern Kingdom and Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Omri, and Ahab in the Northern Kingdom.

The Composition of the Elijah-Elisha Stories and the Deuteronomistic History    S. Otto

Asa     Jewish Encyclopedia

Asa     Wikipedia

Josephus’ Portrait of Asa     Louis H. Feldman    

Connecting to God through Giving             Sid Litke  

The Man Who Prayed About the Weather (1 Kings 17-19 and James 5:16b-18)                         Steven J. Cole  

Living in Love: Secrets from Bible Marriages                      Richard L Strauss

Jezebel   Jewish Encyclopedia  

Jezebel   Wikipedia  

The “Jezebel Spirit”: A Scholarly Inquiry      Trudie Stark and Hans J.M. van Deventer

1 Kings 18:17-20:21               Roger Hahn     Chapter 18 of 1 Kings brings to a conclusion the battle between Yahweh and Baal over rain.

Omri   Jewish Encyclopedia  

Omri    Wikipedia  

Omri King of Israel    Bryant G. Wood  

Jezebel’s Oath (1 Kgs 19,2)      Robert J. Merecz  

Elijah’s Sleeping Baal   H Jacobson explains how Elijah’s words may recall some cultic awakening of the deity in morning rites.  

The Famous ‘Showdown’ Between Eliyahu and the Prophets of Ba’al on Har Carmel     Menachem Leibtag  

God in the Quietness  1 Kings  19:1-8  Dennis Bratcher  

1 Kings 19:1-18 as a story of discernment in Works of Art     Ann-Marie Bos

1 Kings 20:22-22:28                Roger Hahn   The closing chapters of 1 Kings and the opening chapters of 2 Kings are a confusing collection of stories about Elijah, Elisha, Ahab, Ahab’s successors, the interaction of Aram (Syria) and Israel, and Jehoshaphat. The literary purpose of the section appears to be to show the circumstances leading to the fulfillment of God’s commission to Elijah in 1 Kings 19:15-18.

Finding Financial Contentment     Sid Litke

Life for Land (I Kings 21:1-29)       Stuart R. Jones

First Kings 21:17-19 The Evolution Of Prophetism At Mari And Israel      Mike Furey  

1  Kings 22:29-2 Kings 2:25            Roger Hahn     First Kings 22 brings to a close the reign of King Ahab in the Northern Kingdom. Chapters 20 and 21 had anticipated his death by giving specific reasons that the judgment of God would fall upon Ahab.  

The Primary History (Genesis – 2 Kings), an Exilic Composition of 562 – 561 BCE   Walter Mattfeld     focuses on Deuteronomy 30:1-10 and explores the theory the idea that the Primary History was written by one author in the exile and notes that some sites appearing in Joshua did not come into existence until late in the 7th century BCE.  

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Lamentations (Consequences of Rebellion)                          David Colburn  

1 Kings, 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Obadiah, Psalms (Jehosophat, Ahab, and the Prophet Elijah)                       David Colburn

The Portrayal of Prophets in 2 Kings 2      Mark O’Brien

Beware the Angry Prophet: 2 Kings 2:23-25     Jim West      

A Response to West    J. Edward Wright

Elisha the Prophet     Dennis Bratcher   Elisha, whose name means “El [God] is salvation”), was a prophet of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. He who was active for a period of some fifty years (c. 850-800 BC) during the reigns of Joram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, and Jehoash (Joash). Elisha was the successor and disciple of Elijah.

Elisha      Jewish Encyclopedia  

Elisha     Wikipedia  

Elisha       Robert I. Bradshaw  

The Elisha Narratives and Coherence of 2 Kings 2-8     Philip E. Satterthwaite  

The Elisha Stories as Saint’s Legends      Yael Shemesh  

Beware the Angry Prophet: 2 Kings 2:23-25     Jim West  

2 Kings 3: History or Historical Fiction?     Joe M. Sprinkle

2 Kings 3:1-4:44     Roger Hahn           Second Kings 3 and 4 continue the stories in the Elisha cycle of material. Chapter 2 had described the way in which Elisha became the successor of Elijah and the verification of his authority from God through several miracles of authentication. 

A Forgotten Cultic Reform? 2 Kings 3:2b  Andre Lemaire

The Meaning of II Kings 3:27      George M. Harton

The Destruction of Trees in the Moabite Campaign of 2 Kings 3:4-27: a study in the laws of warfare     Michael G. Hasel    

Learning and Teaching Stewardship        Sid Litke  

Elisha and the Miraculous Jug of Oil (2 Kgs 4:1-7)     Yael Shemesh  

God’s Giving Promises             Sid Litke  

Naaman and the Wild God of Israel     Michael A. King

2 Kings 5:1-7:20                Roger Hahn         Elisha’s death is narrated in 2 Kings 13:14-21. Within that span of chapters, Elisha is the major figure in 2 Kings 2-8. The ministry of Elisha is generally dated from approximately 850 BC to 800 BC.   

Naaman, Dirt, and Territorial Gods – The Canonical Function of 2 Kings 5:17-19     Dennis Bratcher

A Brief Moment for a One-Person Remnant (2 Kings 5:2-3)  Walter Brueggemann,  

The Embarrassing Footnote Walter Brueggmann  The books of Kings embody the tension between the canon of certitude and footnotes of hurt and amazement. A tale of transformation in which the enemy is transformed into a festival partner who goes peaceably away.    

The Man Who Saw the Unseen (2 Kings 6:8-23)                                 Steven J. Cole  

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Jonah, Isaiah, Amos, (Elisha, Jonah, Isaiah, Amos)                                        David Colburn  

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Isaiah, Micah, Psalm, Hosea (Isaiah Prophesies Judgment and the Messiah, also, Micah and Hosea Prophesy and Hezekiah is Faithful)            David Colburn  

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Psalms, Isaiah (Isaiah Prophesies Hope)                             David Colburn  

Nahum, 2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Psalms (Josiah Repents, Other Kings Choose Poorly)                                        David Colburn  

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Lamentations (Consequences of Rebellion)                    David Colburn

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2 Kings 8:1-10:17     Roger Hahn      he focus of 1 and 2 Kings has been on the prophets Elijah and Elisha from 1 Kings 17 through 2 Kings 8. Though there have been sections that recounted battles and the summaries of kings, most of the material has dealt with the two prophets.   

The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet What It Takes to Make a Prophet Weep (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:7-15)       Bob Deffinbaugh

The Life and Times of Elisha the Prophet Three Birds with One Stone (1 Kings 19:15-18; 2 Kings 8:16-9:37)              Bob Deffinbaugh    

2 Kings 10:18-13:9     Roger Hahn    The writer trying to make sense of the devastating loss of the temple, the Davidic kingship, and the land of Israel. The first eleven chapters depict Solomon in great splendor, they also reveal the seeds of disobedience that would yield the devastating harvest of exile.

 Death Formulae and the Burial Place of the Kings of the House of David       Nadav Na’aman  

A New Historical Reconstruction of the Fall of Samaria     Sung Jin Park  

Why Did the Northern Kingdom Fall According to 2 Kings 15?     Peter Dubovsky

The Chronology of 2 Kings 15-18     Andrew E. Steinmann

  Hezekiah     Jewish Encyclopedia  

Hezekiah   Wikipedia  

Hezekiah      David Mandel  

Hezekiah      Robert I. Bradshaw

Trust in the Lord’: Hezekiah, Kings and Isaiah       John W. Olley  

New Light on Hezekiah’s Second Prophetic Story 2 Kings 19: 9-35. Nadav Na’aman suggests that the Deuteronomist combined chronistic and narrative early texts and integrated them into his composition of the history of Israel.  

Hezekiah’s surprising Answer to his Prayer  

Did Sennacherib Campaign Once or Twice Against Hezekiah     Siegfriend H. Horn 

Sennacherib’s Attack on Hezekiah      Alan R. Millard

  The Openness of God: Does Prayer Change God?     William D. Barrick  

The Prayer of Manasseh

The Role of Assyria in the Ancient Near East During the Reign of Manasseh      Roy Gane   

  Amon   Jewish Encyclopedia  

Amon     Wikipedia

Jotham and Amon: Two Minor Kings of Judah According to Josephus     Christopher T. Begg

  A Note on the Personal Name Amon Dominic Rudman examines some of the biographical information on Amon – Manasseh’s son.  

Ahab      Jewish Encyclopedia

Ahab     Wikipedia

Ahab     Robert I. Bradshaw

Ahab the Israelite       Bryant G. Wood  

Exploring the Garden of Uzza: Death, Burial and Ideologies of Kingship     Francesca Stavrakopoulou  

Found But Not Lost: A Skeptical Note on the Document Discovered in the Temple Under Josiah   David Henige  

Assyrian Downfall through Isaiah’s Eyes (2 Kings 15 – 23): The Historiography of Representation      Peter Dubovsky  

This Found Book'(2Kgs 22:13): Lessons in Biblical Renewal from Josiah      Chris Ciccarino  

Josiah’s Reform and the Book of the Law      Donald W.B. Robinson

  Josiah and the Torah Book: Comparison of 2 Kgs 22:1-23:28 and 2 Chr 34:1-35:19     Lyle Eslinger                  David Malick  

The Loss of Armageddon, or, 621 and All That: Biblical Fiction, Biblical History, and the Rewritten Bible     Robert P. Carroll  

The History of the Kingdoms  Gerald A. Larue  

From Manasseh to the Deuteronomic Reform  Gerald A. Larue  

From the Fall of Ninevah to the Fall of Judah  Gerald A. Larue  

The Temple of Solomon Lambert Dolphin  

The Temple Mount in Jerusalem   Jehoiakim     Jewish Encyclopedia  

Jehoiakim     Wikipedia  

Jehoiakim Slept with his Fathers…” (II Kings 24:6) -Did He?    Oded Lipschits,  Journal of Hebrew Scriptures – Volume 4: Article 1 (2002)  

The Fate of Jehoiakim        Alberto R.W. Green

  Gender, Class, and Androcentric Compliance in the Rapes of Enslaved Women in the Hebrew Bible     Susanne Scholz  

When Was the First Temple Destroyed, According to the Bible?      Michael Avioz  

Synoptic Comparison of Chronicles with its Sources in Samuel and Kings  Ralph W. Klein  

Nebuchadnezzar      Jewish Encyclopedia  

Nebuchadnezzar       Wikipedia  

Nebuchadnezzar      David Mandel  

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Isaiah, Micah, Psalm, Hosea (Isaiah Prophesies Judgment and the Messiah, also, Micah and Hosea Prophesy and Hezekiah is Faithful)  David Colburn

An Overlooked Message – The Critique of Kings and Affirmation of Equality in the Primeval History Robert K Gnuse   The Primeval History in Genesis 2-11 contains symbolic polyvalent narratives with diverse levels of interpretive possibility. One meaningful level of interpretation is to see how the accounts contain a strident critique of kingship, especially the social economic abuses perpetrated by kings. Kings who receive the strident barbs of the author include not only Mesopotamian rulers, but also, by implication, the rulers of Israel and Judah, who likewise abused their powers. This exilic critique of kings is also, in turn, part of the great biblical message affirming human equality and dignity, and it speaks a powerful egalitarian word to any age.

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