Torah Class Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.
Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective Video Messages
Ancient and Lost Civilisations Extensive listing of civilisations that include Ancient Near Eastern.
Ancient Near East Site Maps from the Oriental Institute Map Series. Seven Site Maps covering the Ancient Near East.
Ancient Near East – The Ancient History Sourcebook An extensive scholarly resource.
Ancient Near East Law Codes
Code of Hammurabi – Middle Assyrian Law Code – Code of Nesilim – Code of Ur-Nammu
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ABZU – Guide to resources for the study of the Ancient Near East available on theInternet
Annals of the Kings of Assyria Edited by E.A. Wallis Budge and L.W. King, and published in 1902
The Land Gerald A. Larue explains how Palestine served as an inter-continental cultural link, and when great nations developed and expanded, it became a buffer state, a cushion, between the people of the Nile and those of Asia Minor or Mesopotamia.
Bible Places Todd Bolen presents a helpful resource for those interested in Bible geography and archaeology. This is a graphics intense site and may require a little patience with a dial up connection.
Historical Tables of The Ancient Near East and Israel Ralph W. Klein
Timelines Ralph W. Klein
Letter of Ashuruballit Letter from Abdu-Heba of Jerusalem; Bible: 2 Samuel 6-7; 2 Kings 18-20; 24-25; Nehemiah 1, 3, 6-7;
Tribal Period through United Kingdom 1200-931 BCE
Light on the Old Testament from the Ancient Near East Martin Luther King an examination of some of the extra biblical matter for Old Testament study.
Rise of Mesopotamia prepared by Washington State University.
On-Line Primary Literature Related to ancient Near Eastern religions, Hellenistic Mediterranian religions and Biblical Study
The Motif of the Sleeping Divinity A. Mrozek and S. Votto compare common points in the Mesopotamian and Biblical texts.
The Birth of Kingship: from democracy to monarchy in Sumer Jacob Klein explains a somewhat obscure, historical development of how monarchy came to Sumer.
The Code of Hammurabi – Babylonian Law The Avalon Project of Yale University
When the King Crosses the Line: Royal Deviance and Restitution in Levantine Ideologies K.C. Hanson Plagues and famines were recurring problems for people of the ancient Levant (eastern Mediterranean); and since these phenomena were perceived to be the actions of the gods, they required interpretation by authorized prophets and diviners. The seven passages discussed here all articulate a common behavioral pattern (with a king identified as the culpable deviant) and character-set with regard to these catastrophes. The motifs manifested are: breach of the sacred, divine punishment in the form of plague or famine, prophetic interpretation, restitution, and blood-sacrifice. The character-set is: the deity, the king/s, the prophet/s, and the suffering population.
The Akkadian Language – Babylonian and Assyrian Cuniform Texts Akkadian is one of the great cultural languages of world history. Akkadian (or Babylonian-Assyrian) is the collective name for the spoken languages of the culture in the three millennia BCE in Mesopotamia, the area between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, approx. covering modern Irak
Early Assyria and her Rivals James H. Breasted
The Assyrian Empire James H. Breasted
The Chaldean Empire – The last semitic empire – James H. Breasted
Hodayot (1QHa The Thanksgiving Hymns) A scroll of prayers and hymns discovered in Cave 1 at Qumran, unlike the biblical Psalms in form, expressing the religious aspirations of people at that time.
Discoveries at Ninevah Austen Henry Layard
Babylon and Ninevah, Second Expedition Austen Henry Layard
The Calculated Frightfulness of Ashur Nasir Apal A.T. Olmstead
Other Creation Epics
Creation Stories of the Ancient Near East David Livingston
An overlooked message: the critique of kings and affirmation of equality in the primeval history Robert K. Gnuse The Primeval History in Genesis 2-11 contains symbolic polyvalent narratives with diverse levels of interpretive possibility. One meaningful level of interpretation is to see how the accounts contain a strident critique of kingship, especially the social economic abuses perpetrated by kings. Kings who receive the strident barbs of the author include not only Mesopotamian rulers, but also, by implication, the rulers of Israel and Judah, who likewise abused their powers. This exilic critique of kings is also, in turn, part of the great biblical message affirming human equality and dignity, and it speaks a powerful egalitarian word to any age.
Enuma Elish – When on High The Mesopotamian/Babylonian Creation Story Dennis R. Bratcher explains that this epic recounts the struggle between cosmic order and chaos – a myth of the cycle of seasons.
Gilgamesh an historical king of Uruk in Babylonia.
Gilgamesh Study Guide One of the oldest recorded histories.
Other Flood Stories
A History of the Ancient World – Egypt and it’s earliest inhabitants James Henry Breasted