Old Testament Gateway - An academic site for the Old Testament



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Biblical Training - FRee Bible Classes to Help You Grow SpirituallyMy current study resources – Free sign up allows access to all classes to degree level.

  Torah Class    Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.

Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective  Video Messages  

Daniyel – The Book of Daniel  Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of Job from the Jewish Publication Society Bible

Daniel Jewish Encyclopedia

Daniel text with Rashi’s commentary – Complete Jewish Bible

Daniel – Expositor’s Bible Commentray

Expository Notes on Daniel   Thomas L. Constable expository notes on Daniel.

Contemporary English Version (CEV) (Book of Daniel) On-Line

New International Version (NIV) (Book of Daniel) On-Line

New English Translation (NET) (Book of Daniel) On-Line

New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) (Book of Daniel) On-Line

Daniel  – at Luther Seminary’s Enter the Bible. Study basics about Bible books, people, dates, places.

Book of Daniel   Wikipedia

Daniel Walk Thru the Bible

Daniel  – Geneva Study Bible

Daniel   – Matthew Henry’s Commentary

Daniel  – Wesley’s Explanatory Notes

Daniel – Robert Jamieson’s Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the whole Bible Daniel- Scofield Reference Notes

Daniel- Dr Bob Utley

Daniel- World Wide Study Bible

Daniel- Bible Notes

Daniel – Calvin’s Commentary Chapter 1 – 6

Daniel – Calvin’s Commentary Chapter 7 – 12   Introduction to Daniel  David Malick Argument of Daniel – Outline  David Malick


Outline of Daniel                            Robert C. Dunston

Introductory Matters Concerning Daniel                           Robert C. Dunston

Outline of Daniel                Daniel B. Wallace

Commentary 9 : Jeremiah to Daniel        Charles Simeon

A Text on Daniel                 Division of Student Ministry

Studies in the Book of Daniel                           Robert D. Wilson

The Book of Daniel – Study Materials       Felix Just

Daniel: On the Way to the Future             Ray Stedman 

Hippolytus: On Daniel Daniel                   Robert I. Bradshaw

Daniel’s First Verse                   F.F. Bruce

The Composition of the Book of Daniel            George A. Barton

Commentary on the First Chapter of Daniel Lesson 1: The Assault on Jerusalem                                     Stanley E. Rickard

Commentary on the First Chapter of the Book of Daniel Lesson 2: Exile of the Four Hebrew Children                   Stanley E. Rickard

Commentary on the First Chapter of the Book of Daniel Lesson 3: Daniel’s Moral Dilemma                             Stanley E. Rickard

Commentary on the First Chapter of the Book of Daniel Lesson 4: Daniel’s Conduct                          Stanley E. Rickard

Commentary on the First Chapter of the Book of Daniel Lesson 5: Daniel’s Vindication                       Stanley E. Rickard

Commentary on the First Chapter of the Book of Daniel Lesson 5: Daniel’s Vindication                        Stanley E. Rickard

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Old Testament  Apocalypses – Daniel & Zechariah                Bob Utley

  Daniel                              Kenneth Boa

Men Spake from God                                   H.L. Ellison

Evidences Relating to the Date of the Book of Daniel                           David Conklin

Historical Dating of the Book of Daniel                                           Jeramy Townsley

Daniel                                        Homer Heater Jr  

The Book of Daniel: Some Linguistic Evidence Regarding its Date                                       W. St. Clair Tisdall

Qumran and the Dating of Daniel                                     Robert I. Vasholz

The Place of Daniel in Old Testament Eschatology                                David F. Payne 

Daniel and Contacts Between the Aegean and the Near East Before Alexander                                   Edwin M. Yamauchi

Daniel: the Basic Issue                                           Gordon J. Wenham

Joel 1-3   Daniel 1-12 (Promised Redemption)                            David Colburn

The Rapture              Bill McRae

Who is Ezekiel’s Daniel?                                Daniel B. Wallace

Daniel Relating Prophecy to Piety                             Bob Deffinbaugh

Studies in the Book of Daniel                    Allen P Ross

Reading the Old Testament: Daniel        Barry L. Bandstra

Early Traces of the Book of Daniel           Roger Beckwith

The Period of Jewish Independence  Gerald A Larue

Holding on to Daniel’s Court Tales                                    Richard D. Patterson

The Uneasy Conscience of Modern Liberal Exegesis                             J. Barton Payne

A Biblical Defense – Defending our Historic Beliefs about the Sanctuary in Daniel and Hebrews              Vance Ferrell

Daniel and Zechariah                                       Bob Utley  

The Book of Daniel: Evidences Relating to Persons and Chronology                                 Gerhard F. Hasel

The Book of Daniel: Three Issues                                  John E. Goldingay

Some Historical Problems in the Book of Daniel        D. J. Wiseman

Hermeneutical Issues in the Book of Daniel                                      Edwin M. Yamauchi

Daniel: a Book of Significant Reversals                          Zdravko Stefanovic

The Literary Structure of the Book of Daniel and Its Implications              David W. Gooding

Literary Strategies and Authorship in the Book of Daniel                                   Branson L. Woodard Jr

Is There Pseudonymity in the Old Testament?                             Joyce G. Baldwin

Some Literary Affinities of the Book of Daniel             Joyce G. Baldwin

Reviewing History in Apocalyptic Literature as Ideological Strategy              P.M. Venter

The Book of Daniel: its Trustworthiness and Prophetic Character                      G. Ch. Aalders

How Many Weeks until the End?         Wendell W. Frerichs

The Source of Daniel’s Animal Imagery              Ernest Lucas  

A Conservative Thinks Again About Daniel (1)                              G.R. Beasley-Murray

A Conservative Thinks Again About Daniel (2)                                G.R. Beasley-Murray

Premillennialism in the Book of Daniel               Kenneth L. Barker

The Message of Daniel                  Graham Beynon

The Aramaic of Daniel                K. A. Kitchen

The Aramaic of Daniel, Notes on Some Problems in the Book Of Daniel                                  K. A. Kitchen

The Book of Daniel and Matters of Language: Evidences Relating to Names, Words, and the Aramaic Language                   Gerhard F. Hasel

Correlations between Old Aramaic inscriptions and the Aramaic section of Daniel                                           Zdravko Stefanovic

The Hebrew of Daniel                W. J. Martin

The Book of Daniel and the “Maccabean Thesis                       Arthur J. Ferch

Violence and the Daniel Tales in a Children’s Bible              Marius Nel

God in Control: An Exposition of the Prophecies of the Book of Daniel                           Robert J.M. Gurney

Daniel 1:1 and Jehoiakim’s Three Years of Servitude                                Mark K. Mercer

Translating the Poetic Sections of Daniel 1-6                         Daud Soesilo

Daniel 1 – 6 and History                                   Alan R. Millard

The Function of Poetic Speech in the Narrative in Daniel 2                   Pieter M. Venter

Interpretations of the Kingdom of God in Daniel 2:44                       Gerhard Pfandl

Daniel in Babylon: An Accurate Record?                                   Alan R. Millard

The Four Kingdoms of Daniel 2 and 7                                 Robert J.M. Gurney

Further Literary Structures in Daniel 2-7: an Analysis of Daniel 4                        William H. Shea

Further literary structures in Daniel 2-7: an analysis of Daniel 5                                 William H. Shea

A Literary Critical Comparison of the Masoretic Text and Septuagint of Daniel 2-7                Tim Meadowcrof

Daniel: Jewish Influence on Jerome’s Translation and Commentary               Jan Smeets

The Prophecies of Daniel and Revelation, the Original Jewish Version   Bernard D Muller. Based on historical objectivity, critical study, tangible evidence and thorough research

The Danielic Background for Revelation 13-18 and 17:9                            Gregory K. Beale

The Influence of Daniel upon the Structure and Theology of John’s Apocalypse             Gregory K. Beale

The Three Children in the Fiery Furnace (Dan. iii.; Jer. xxix.22)               John P. Peters

Rescue from Fiery Death Daniel Ch 3 and Genesis Cha 38          Zvi Ron

Daniel 3: Extra-Biblical Texts and the Convocation on the Plain of Dura                                 William H. Shea

To Bow or Not to Bow – an Essay on Daniel 3     Daniel B. Wallace Historical and Expository treatment of Daniel 3

Daniel 3:26, 27, 29, 34-41              Pope John Paul II

Daniel 3:52-57                               Pope John Paul II

Daniel 3:57-88, 56                         Pope John Paul II

Daniel 3:52-57                              Pope John Paul II

Daniel 3:57-88, 56                        Pope John Paul I

Literary Patterns and God’s Sovereignty in Daniel 4           Byron Burkholder

Christian Use of a Prayer from Daniel              Lawrence Frizell

Daniel: Model of Jewish and Christian Prayer               Virginia Sharp

Nabonidus, Belshazzar, and the Book of Daniel: an update                        William H. Shea

Belshazzar’s Feast and the Cult of the Moon God Sin              Al Wolters

Two Assyro-Babylonian Parallels to Dan. v.5ff              John Dyneley Prince

Belshazzar  Wikipedia Belshazzar                                 Robert Dick Wilson


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First and third years of Belshazzar: Dan 7:1; 8:1                                Gerhard F. Hasel

The Belshazzar of Daniel and the Belshazzar of History                    Lester L. Grabbe

Mene Mene Teqel Uparsin: Daniel 5:25 in Cuneiform                David Instone Brewer

Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin (Dan. v. 25)               John P. Peters

Belshazzar’s Feast and the Cult of the Moon God Sin           Al Wolters

Bel(te)shazzar Meets Belshazzar                                     William H. Shea

The Enigma of Darius the Mede: a Way to its Final Solution              Herbert Owen

The Decree of Darius the Mede in Daniel 6                             John H. Walton

Darius the Mede in his Persian-Babylonian Setting                                 William H. Shea

Darius the Mede: an update                            William H. Shea

From World Dominion to Subjection; The Story of the Fall of Babylon                          Theophilus G. Pinches

Babylon in the Days of Nebuchadrezzar                              Theophilus G. Pinches

Nebuchadnezzar                                     Robert Dick Wilson

The Music of the Old Testament Reconsidered                            T.C. Mitchell

The Musical Instruments in Nebuchadnezzar’s Orchestra     T. C. Mitchell and R. Joyce

The Nebuchadrezzars of Daniel               John P. Peters

Nebuchadnezzar, Gilgamesh, and the ‘Babylonian Job                                   Paul Ferguson

A Further Note on Daniel 6: Daniel as “Governor”                       William H. Shea

Thematic links between the historical and prophetic sections of Daniel                                   Zdravko Stefanovic

The Four Kingdoms of Daniel 2 and 7                                 Robert J.M. Gurney

The Four Kingdoms of Daniel        John H. Walton

Daniel 7:2-14 Another Look at Its Mythic Pattern                 Anne E. Gardner

Decoding Daniel: The Case of Dan 7:5                                        A.E. Gardner

The Little Horn of Dan 7:8 Malevolent or Benign?                     A.E. Gardner

Daniel 7,2-14: Another Look at its Mythic Pattern                     A.E. Gardner

The High Priest as Divine Mediator in the Hebrew Bible: Dan 7:13 as a Test Case (Part 1)                     Crispin H.T. Fletcher-Louis

The High Priest as Divine Mediator in the Hebrew Bible: Dan 7:13 as a Test Case (Part 2)                     Crispin H.T. Fletcher-Louis

Daniel’s Four Empires Scheme        Ernest C. Lucas

The Neo-Babylonian Historical Setting for Daniel 7                                 William H. Shea

The Origin of Daniel’s Four Empires Scheme Re-examined                               Ernest C. Lucas

Daniel’s Use of Three Greek Words  Daniel J. Dyke questions those who date the Book of Daniel through reference to Greek words used in the text. Three words for musical instruments are used  together in four verses of the book.

‘Son of Man’, ‘Pitiable Man’, ‘Rejected Man’: Equivalent Expressions in the Old Greek of Daniel             Eugene E. Lemcio

The “Son of Man” in the Book of Daniel                 Nathaniel Schmidt

Daniel’s Vision of the Son of Man                                    Edward J. Young

The Apocalyptic “Son of Man” in Daniel 7                           Arthur J. Ferch

The “One Like a Son of Man” According to the Old Greek of Daniel 7:13  –  14              Benjamin E. Reynolds

The Aramaic Phrase Bar ‘inos “Son of Man” (Dan 7:13-14) Revisited               Eugen J. Pentiuc

ereb boqer of Daniel 8:14 re-examined                                 S.J. Schwantes

Daniel viii. 9-14                  George Foot Moore

The Prophecies of Daniel, Page 1 & Page 2                  Bernard D. Muller       Determination of authorship & dating, definition of the four kingdoms & kings and revelation of the meaning of the seventy ‘sevens’ (or ‘weeks’).

On Schedl’s attempt to count the days of Daniel                              Sydney Allen

Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and the Old Testament Sabbath-Year Cycle                Robert C. Newman

Daniel’s Prayer in Chapter 9                                     Charles E. McLain

Prayer Related to Prophecy in Daniel 9                            James E. Rosscup

Spiritual Failure, Postponement, And Daniel 9                    Ronald W. Pierce

Jeremiah’s Seventy Years for Babylon: a Re-Assessment; pt 1: The Scriptural Data                                   Ross E. Winkle

In Search of the Seventy ‘Weeks’ of Daniel 9                 George Athas

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9:24-27                             Robert J.M. Gurney 

Daniel’s 70 Weeks                                      James B. Jordan

Bridging the Last Gap: Daniel’s  Seventy Weeks Revisited                              James B. Jordan

Jeremiah’s 70-Year Prophecy and the ymq bl/K## Atbash Codes                               Mark Leuchter

The Background of Jewish Apocalyptic                              W.G. Lambert

Goal of Daniel’s Seventy Weeks                                     J. Barton Payne

The Hebrew Masculine Plural for “Weeks” in the Expression “Seventy Weeks” in Daniel 9:24                                     Gerhard F. Hasel 

Hermeneutical Factors in Determining the Beginning of the Seventy Weeks (Dan. 9:25)                  Vern S. Poythress

A New Interpretation of Daniel’s “Sevens” and the Chronology of the Seventy ‘Sevens’                               David H. Lurie

Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and the Old Testament Sabbath-Year Cycle                           Robert C. Newman

Daniel’s Seventy Weeks and the New Exodus                                  Peter J. Gentry 

Covenant of the Seventieth Week. In The Law and the Prophets              Meredith G. Kline

Daniel’s Seventy Week Prophecy Daniel J. Dyke explains how predictive prophecy is what sets the God of Christianity and Judaism apart.

The Enigma of Darius The Mede: A Way to its Final Solution                             Herbert Owen

Spiritual Failure, Postponement, and Daniel 9                Ronald W. Pierce

Constitualised Space in Daniel 9                                    P.M. Venter

Do the Sixty-Nine Weeks of Daniel Date the Messianic Mission of Nehemiah or Jesus?                        Leslie McFall

Daniel 10 and the Notion of Territorial Spirits               David E. Stevens

Wrestling with the prince of Persia: a study on Daniel 10                        William H. Shea

Antiochus IV Epiphanes in Jerusalem                   Daniel R. Schwartz

Daniel and Revelation, a Critical Study               Bernard D. Muller

Daniel 11 as History                                              Ian Hutchesson

Daniel’s “King of the North” Do we owe Russia an Apology?                         J. Paul Tanner

Desolation of the Temple and Messianic Enthronement in Daniel 11:36 – 12:3                                 Jason Thomas Parry

The Benefactions of Antochus IV Epiphanes and Daniel 11:37-38: An Exegetical Note                                  Mark Mercer

A Note on Daniel 11: 40-45                                        Robert J.M. Gurney

The Book of Daniel: Its Significance and Meaning               Asher Finkel

The Intertextual Relationship of Daniel 12:2 and Isaiah 26:19: Evidence from Qumran and the Greek Versions            Daniel P. Bailey

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