Old Testament Gateway - An academic site for the Old Testament


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Biblical Training - FRee Bible Classes to Help You Grow SpirituallyMy current study resources – Free sign up allows access to all classes to degree level.


Torah Class    Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.

Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective Video messages

  SHEMOT (Book of Exodus)   Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of Genesis from the Jewish Publication Society Bible

Exodus  Jewish Encyclopedia

Shemot-Exodus text with Rashi’s commentary – Complete Jewish Bible

Exodus – Expositor’s Bible Commentary

Exodus – Navigating the Bible Notes on Exodus Thomas L. Constable  Exodus contains some of the richest, foundational theology of all the books in the Old testament.

The Contemporary English Translation (CEV) Bible (book of Exodus)  On-Line

New International Version (NIV) (Book of Exodus) On-Line

The New English Translation (NET) Bible (book of Exodus)  On-Line

The New Revised Standard (NRSV) Bible (book of Exodus)  On-Line

Exodus at Luther Seminary’s Enter the Bible. Study basics about Bible books, people, dates, places.

Exodus   Wikipedia

Exodus an Article   Wikipedia

Exodus Walking Thru the Bible

Exodus – Geneva Study Bible

Exodus – Matthew Henry’s Commentary

Exodus – Wesley’s Explanatory Notes

Exodus – Robert Jamieson’s Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the whole Bible

Exodus – Scofield Reference Notes

Exodus – Dr Bob Utley

Exodus – World Wide Study Bible

Exodus – Bible Notes

Exodus – Calvin’s Commentaries Harmony of the Law – Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy Vol 1

Exodus – Calvin’s Commentaries Harmony of the Law – Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy Vol 2

Exodus – Calvin’s Commentaries Harmony of the Law – Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy Vol 3

Exodus – Calvin’s Commentaries Harmony of the Law – Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy Vol 4  

An Introduction to the Book of Exodus                David Malick   

An Argument of the Book of Exodus                    David Malick

Exodus and the Authority of the Written Word                        Cameron B. R. Howard

What Every Christian Should Know about Exodus                        James K. Bruckner

The Law the First Five Books                          J Hampton Keathley III

Living in Community with God: God’s Relationship with His People in the Books of Moses         Michael Morrison  

Analysis and Synthesis of Exodus                     Frank DeCanio

Exodus for Children      Eight studies by    Jodi Hooper   Read about Bible Lessons 4 Kidz

Gospel in Exodus                       Henry Law          Religious Tract Society

Sefer Shmot – Introduction    Menachem Leibtag

Translating Exodus    William H. C. Propp

Exodus: A People is Born    W. Gunther Plaut

Archaeology and the Book of Exodus – Exit From Egypt Part 1           Mario Seiglie 

Archaeology and the Book of Exodus – Exit From Egypt Part 2           Mario Seiglie

The Exodus and The Wanderings in the Wilderness   Alfred Edersheim

Short Studies on the Exodus     Daniel Dyke

Bible Briefs Exodus: study guide from Virginia Theological Seminary

Exodus an Overview Division of Student Ministry Baptist General Convention of Texas

Ezer and Exodus                     Randy Klassen

Exodus: Deliverance and Covenant    Barry Bandstra 

Exodus the Birth of a Nation    Robert L. Deffinbaugh Highlights in the history of Israel part 2.

How Reliable is Exodus  Allan Millard investigates the veracity of Exodus in light of recent attacks.

The Coherence of Exodus: Narrative Unity and Meaning     C. Arie Leder

Reading Exodus to Learn and Learning to Read Exodus     C. Arie Leder

Exodus   God’s People on a Journey           

Law – Hear, 0 Israel (the Legal Codes)   Davie Napier

How Liberating is Exodus and to Whom Exodus: My Spiritual Map   Carol Ochs

Prologue to Liberation: On Exodus 1:1-7                Pablo R. Andiñach

Exodus 1 – 4 Egyptian Captivity and Moses Called                                          David Colburn

Freedom or Knowledge? Perspective and Purpose in the Exodus Narrative (Exodus 1-15)    Lyle Eslinger

The Feminine Touch in the Legend of Moses   Charles David Isbell

Periods of Biblical History The Story of the Red Sea as a Theological Framework of Interpretation    Young M. Song

The Exodus and the Spade: The Impact of Archaeology on the Interpretation of the Book of Exodus    H.L. Bosman

Coincidence or Providence? Verse Commentary on Exodus 1:22-2:10         Dennis Bratcher    Commentary on the birth narrative of Moses and his rescue from Pharaoh’s death sentence.

Jacob’s Family Goes to Egypt: Varying Portraits of Unity and Disunity in the Textual Traditions of Exodus 1:1 – 5     Andrew E. Steinmann

Coincidence or Providence Exodus 1:22 – 2:10  Dennis Bratcher points out that attention to how the story is told is just as critical as the details themselves. A look at the birth narrative of Moses and his rescue from Pharaoh’s death sentence.

Caught Up in a Story of Wild Proportions                                   Greg Herrick

Exodus 3:14 and the Divine Name: A Case of Biblical Paronomasia     Barry J. Beitzel

Aaron, the High Priest    David Mandel

Miriam     David Mandel

Moses    Joseph Jacobs, George A. Barton, Wilhelm Bacher, Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Crawford Howell Toy and Kaufmann Kohler

Old Testament History and Recent Archeology from Abraham to Moses   Gleason L Archer Jr

Old Testament History and Recent Archaeology from Moses to David      Gleason L Archer Jr

Moses – Wikipedia

On Moses     Walter Brueggemann

Moses as Abandoned Hero Nahum Sarna

Assassinating Moses   Ove von Spaeth   5-volume work    1. The Suppressed Record: Moses’ Unknown Egyptian Background. 2. The Enigmatic Son of Pharaoh’s Daughter: Moses’ Identity and Mystery Re-evaluated. 3. The Vanished Successor: Rediscovering Moses’ Hidden War Leading to Exodus. 4. The Secret Religion: Moses and the Egyptian Heritage in Past and Present. 5. Prophet and Unknown Genius: Illuminating Moses the Advanced Pioneer

Moses: In the Bible & Beyond     Louis Jacobs

When Baby Moses Reached for Pharaoh’s Crown    The Midrash

Moses – in Egypt and Midian (Exodus 2:11-25)     Danny Olinger

Retelling Exodus                          Richard W. Nysse    

Call of Moses Burning Bush    Marcus Jastrow, Louis Ginzberg, Morris Jastrow Jr. and J. Frederic McCurdy

Theophany at the Burning Bush   Nahum Sarna   Suddenly he beheld an awesome spectacle that defied nature’s laws and all human experience. A bush was all aflame yet remained intact, unaffected by the fire. Fire is frequently used in descriptions of the manifestation of the Divine Presence.  

Consider It All Joy                           Greg Herrick

Exodus 3:14 and the Divine Name: A Case of Biblical Paronomasia   Barry J. Beitzel

The God Who Is! Exodus 3:14-15     Joseph B. Flatt

A Case Study of the Call of Moses     G. Herbert Livingston

Zipporah    David Mandel

The Bloody Bridegroom in Exodus 4:24 – 26    Ronald B. Allen

Ethnicity, Exogamy, and Zipporah    Karen Strand Winslow

The Problem of Old Testament Ethics                       Elmer A. Martens

Response to Elmer Martens                 Ben C. Ollenburger

Dating the Pentateuch and the Book of Exodus via Archaeological Anomalies and Anachronisms  Walter Mattfeld  looks at the archaeological findings and compares them with the Biblical accounts.

Is Mount Horeb (Mt Sinai) Jebel Arribeh by St Catherine’s or Mount Timna?  Walter Mattfeld

Scholarly Pitfalls encountered in setting a Date for the Exodus and establishing its route on maps   Walter Mattfeld

Dating the Pentateuch and the Book of Exodus- “Rameses and the fields of Zoan” Walter Mattfeld

Human Free Will and Divine Determinism: Pharaoh, a Case Study                    Pierre Gilbert

Exodus 14: Hardening Pharaoh’s Heart     Robert D. Luginbill,

Who Hardened Pharo’s Heart   Dave Miller .   Kyle Butt.

Let My People Go – A Hoax or a Mission?    Menachem Leibtag

On the Night of Pharaoh’s Surrender    Walter Brueggemann

The Time of the Oppression and the Exodus    John Rea

New Light on the Wilderness Journey and the Conquest     John Rea

Osarseph and Exodus: Literary Reflections in an Egyptian Mirror    Gary Greenberg

Divine Deception in the Exodus Event                          Ken Esau

biblicalandorientalstudies Biblical and Oriental Studies (2 volumes)

The Theological Significance of the Exodus   Irwin W. Reist

The Date of the Exodus Dating the Exodus   Walter Mattfeld  examines the debate which attempts to date the Exodus.

The Date of the Exodus: The Historical Study of Scripture       Dennis Bratcher         A brief survey of the evidence for establishing a date for the Israelite exodus from Egypt, with summary of the role of historical methods of Bible study.

The Exodus Controversey       If the narrative of the Exodus is not factual, then the trustworthiness of Biblical revelation is indeed seriously undermined. Therefore it is essential that our evaluation of the evidence be accurate and fair.

The Date of Exodus     R. Moore

Old Testament History and Recent Archeology from the Exile to Malachi  Gleason L Archer Jr  

Did Israel’s Exodus From Egypt Actually Happen?   Lee Salisbury

Is there any historical basis for the events of the Jewish Exodus?   Cecil Adams

Liberty to the Captives: The Divine Job Description        Frederick J Gaiser

Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh     Douglas Petrovich

Moses and anthropology: a new view of the Exodus     T.D. Proffitt

Archaeology and the Book of Exodus: Exit from Egypt Part 1 Mario Seiglie explores archaeological discoveries that illuminate the biblical accounts recorded in Exodus.

Archaeology and the Book of Exodus: Exit from Egypt  Part 2 Mario Seiglie focuses on archaeological discoveries surrounding the escape from Egypt.

An Exegetical and Theological Consideration of the Hardening of Pharaoh’s Heart in Exodus 4-14 and Romans 9  G. K. Beale

Exodus 5 –  11 Plagues Upon Egypt                              David Colburn 

The Plagues of Egypt   Wikipedia

Plague   J. F. McLaughlin and Judah David Eisenstein

The Significance of the Plagues in the Narrative of Exodus      Lee Gatis

Exodus 6:3 in Pentateuchal Criticism     Shawn D. Glisson

The Promise of the Land of Israel                                Elmer A Martens

Passover     Emil G. Hirsch

Pesach and Chag Ha’Matzot    Menachem Leibtag   Why do we eat matzah? Is it simply to remember how God saved us during the events of Yetziat Mitzrayim?

Korban Pesach and Yom Hashem    Menachem Leibtag     Pesach was already celebrated some four hundred years before the Exodus

Metamorphosis of a Ferocious Pharaoh    Philippe Guillaume

The Duration of the Egyptian Bondage    Harold W. Hoehner

Exodus     Emil G. Hirsch

Exodus   Wikipedia

Exodus 12  – 15:21 (Passover and Escape from Egypt)                          David Colburn   Some Theories on the Red/Reed Sea Crossing Sites

The Route of the Exodus : Proposals for Yam Suph (Lake Timsah), Etham/Shur (Tumilat/Timsah/Abu Suwayr), Marah/LXX: Merrah (Bir el Murr), Elim (Ayun Musa) Wilderness of Sin/LXX: Sina (El Sanawi/Hosan abu Zenna)  Walter Mattfeld wrestles with the location of the crossing of the Red Sea.

Map of the Crossing of the Red Sea (Yam Suph) by Israel in the Exodus (Lake Timsah)  early view           Walter Mattfeld     

Map of Israel’s Crossing of the Red Sea at Ras el Ballah, “Cape Bellah” Baal Zephon? or  Qantara and Lake  Menbzaleh?   later view                     Walter Mattfeld 

Crossing the Red Sea    Wikipedia

Exodus Route Goshen to the Red Sea The Exodus Route Restored Rejected Locations for the Exodus Route The exodus-conquest and the archaeology of Transjordan: new light on an old problem     Gerald L. Mattingly

Merneptah’s Israel and the Exodus     Samuel A.B.Mercer

Documentary Sources and Exodus  Ralph W. Klein 

The exodus-conquest and the archaeology of Transjordan: new light on an old problem

Archaeology & the Exodus      Ken Spiro

Ancient Egypt’s silence about the Exodus     Gerald Wheeler

The Exodus in the New Testament     Robin Ernest Nixon

The Rise and Fall of the 13th Century Exodus-Conquest Theory     Bryant G. Wood

An Ancient Egypt You Never Knew   Amy Dockser

The Alien According to the Torah     Georges Chawkat Moucarry

The Mystery and Controversy of the Story of Moses: Was Moses Akhenaton? Amenhotep IV? The Legend of Sargon of Akkade c. 230 BCE a parallel to the story of Moses Birth.

The Grammar and Interpretation of Exodus 6:3     W. Randall Garr

Critical Note on Exodus VI.3     R.D. Wilson

The Exodus Enigma looks at the chronological issue in Exodus which is probably the most troubling in terms of the history of Ancient Israel the debate regarding an early date and a late date for Exodus.

Exodus and Biblical Theology: On Moving into the Neighborhood with a New Name     Stephen G. Dempster,

Exodus 7:51-8:21   Menachem Leibtag

The Duration of the Israelite Sojourn in Egypt     Paul J. Ray

The Length of Israel’s Sojourn in Egypt    Jack R. Rigg

Brit Bein Ha’Btarim or Brit Milah?   Menachem Leibtag

Miriam – From Prophet to Leper  Ita Sheres – Anne K. Blau

‘Basic Training’ in the Desert     Menachem Leibtag   Along their journey from Egypt towards Har Sinai, Bnei Yisrael encounter frightening war and life-threatening shortages of food and water. Are they expected not to complain, to passively accept this fate and just sit back and wait patiently for God’s salvation? Is God simply ‘testing’ their patience?

The Problem of Irsrael’s Origins  Garry Greenberg

The Phrase ובעצים ובאבנים in Exod 7,19     B. Lemmelijn T


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 A Paradigm for the Exodus Conflict: Exodus 7:8-13 Jeong Woo (James) Lee examines Pharaoh’s challenge regarding Moses and Arron’s authority. 

When Memory Is Hope: The Response to Exile in P.  Ralph W. Klein

Back to the Future: The Tabernacle in the Book of Exodus   Ralph W. Klein  concludes that the reality and freedom of God’s presence, so memorably expressed by mishkan (“tabernacle”) and by the technical verb of the priestly tradition, shakan,, are echoed in the prologue to John’s Gospel: “And the Word became flesh and pitched his tent in our midst.”

Moving on with God: Key motifs in Exodus 13-20     Deryck Sheriffs

The Land of Goshen and the Exodus     George B. Michell

Exodus 15:21  -19 (Journey to the Sinai)                           David Colburn

Our God: Awesome in Power and Glory-Always Battling for His People     Greg Herrick

The Origins of Israel      Derek Kidner  

Exodus 20 -31:11 (Decalogue, Sanctuary, Priests)                                            David Colburn

Introduction to the Ten Commandments     Jeong W. Lee

Ten Commandments, Two Tablets: The Shape of the Decalogue    David L. Baker

The Finger of God and the Forming of a Nation: The Origin and Purpose of the Decalogue    David L. Baker

The Ten Commandments: Maintaining Authentic Humanity              Lori Kantymir

The Concept of Idolatry     Brian S. Rosne

Ten Commandments Monuments and the Rivalry of Iconic Texts   James W Watts

Tables of the Law    Emil G. Hirsch and Wilhelm Bacher

Aseret ha-Dibrot: The “Ten Commandments”  A Jewish perspective on the ten commandments

The Israelite Household and the Decalogue: the Social Background and Significance of Some Commandments     Christopher J.H. Wright

The Hebrew Papyrus of the Ten Commandments     F. C. Burkitt

Ten Commandments Ten Commandments   Wikipedia

Moses Gave Israel the Ten Commandments    Garry Greenberg

The Decalogue as the Prohibition of Theft                                 David Clines

The Role of the Ten Commandments (Laing Lecture for 1981)  Joyce G. Baldwin

Exodus 20: Moses and the Ten Commandments Interactive computer lessons written and designed by David Landry

When is the Sabbath Day? Why do Christians Gather on Sunday to Worship? Joshua M. Spaulding       Exodus 20:8          Deuteronomy 5:15    To correctly answer the questions “when is the Sabbath day?” and “why do Christians worship on Sunday?” we must go to God’s Word. The Sabbath day was established in the Mosaic law as part of the “10 commandments,” when God said “Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy” (Exodus 20:8). While the other commandments within the “10 commandments” are moral laws that extend beyond the Mosaic law, this commandment is not a moral law. This is a ceremonial law, fulfilled in Christ, and not mentioned in the New Testament. Our debt to God’s moral law and all ceremonial laws was paid, by Christ, in full. This still does not answer fullythe question When is the Sabbath Day. Read on for the full answer.


Slavery in the Bible – Does God Condone Slavery?    Joshua M. Spaulding    Exodus 21:2-6  &  Deuteronomy 15:12-15  There are passages in the Word of God that would suggest that slavery is not strictly condemned. Some read these passages and sincerely do not understand. Many, however, are skeptics simply looking to accuse God of evil-doing.   So does the Bible, and God specifically, approve of slavery?

The Sabbath in the Old Testament: its origin and development     James Meek

The Sabbath: Mark of Distinction     David T. Williams

Covenant and Promise    J. Alec Motyer

The Two Tables of the Covenant     Meredith G. Kline

The Inscribed Tablets from Tell Deir c Alla      William H. Shea

The Mosaic Covenant     William D. Barrick

Introduction to the Biblical Covenants: The Noahic Covenant and The Priestly Covenant     Irv A. Busenitz

The Normative Covenant     J. Alec Motyer

The Perfection of the Covenant     J. Alec Motyer

The Law and the Covenant at Sinai     Edward Heppenstall

God’s Covenants are Conditional      G.H. Lang

Covenant, Law and Sacrifice     J. Alec Motyer

The Significance of the Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Pattern     J.A. Thompson

The Ancient Near Eastern Treaties and the Old Testament     J.A. Thompson

Clothing from Heaven    Douglas B. Clawson 

The Priestly Garments               Robert Mock        

Priestly Garments of Significance     Lois Tverberg Adapted from an article by Carl Schultz

The Tabernacle Chapters      A.H. Finn

Old Testament Gateway - ydyc.org

The Historicity of the Mosaic Tabernacle     James Orr

The Ephod     Theodore C. Foote

Urim and Thummim        Jewish Encyclopedia

Urim and Thummim     Trevor Craigen

Proving and Provision at Marah     David J. Klein

Marah   Wikipedia

Exodus 15:1-4a, 8-13, 17-18      Pope John Paul II 

The Song of Miriam (Exodus 15:19-21)    Robert Van Kooten

Proving and Provision at Marah (Exodus 15:22-27)    David J. Klein

Arslan Tash I and other Vestiges of a Particular Syrian Incantatory Thread     Blane W. Conklin

Hamurabi’s Law Code  

Hamuurabi’s Code     Translated by   L. W. King

8 Things You May Not Know About Hamuurabi Code

Exodus Memories of Southern Sinai   Walter Mattfeld   looks at how the Hebrew Bible has preserved real historical events in its Exodus narratives and attempts to identify the events  which occurred in “real history” as revealed by archeology.

Manna narrative of Exodus 16:1-10     Paul W. Ferris

Amalekites The Ha-Bi-Ru – Kin or Foe of Israel? Part 1     Meredith G. Kline

The Ha-Bi-Ru – Kin or Foe of Israel? Part 2     Meredith G. Kline

The Ha-Bi-Ru – Kin or Foe of Israel? Part 3     Meredith G. Kline

The Decalogue in Exodus20 and Deuteronomy 5 a Synopsis   Ralph W. Klein

Moses Shattered Ten Commandments on Tables of Stone?  Walter Mattfeld

Amalek – genetic or generic?    Menachem Leibtag

Towards the Peak of Mount Sinai: A Discourse-Pragmatic Analysis of Exodus 19      Nicolai Winther-Nielsen

A Royal Priesthood:  Literary and Intertextual Perspectives on an Image of Israel in Exodus 19:6     John A. Davies

Law and narrative in Exodus 19-24     Joe M. Sprinkle

God’s Gracious Love Expressed: Exodus 20:1-17     David R. Worley

The Possible Influence of LXX Exodus 20:11 on Acts 14:15     Thomas B. Slater

Exodus 21:22-25 and the Abortion Debate     Robert N. Congdon

Miscarriage or Premature Birth: Additional Thoughts on Exodus 21:22-2    H. Wayne House

Exodus 21:22: The Miscarriage Interpretation and the Personhood of the Fetus     Russell Fuller

Exod 23,20 -33 and the ‘War of YHWH’     Hans Ausloos

The Tabernacle     Louis Jacobs

Tabernacle  Jewish Encyclopedia

Shewbread   J Hastings

Cherubim      Louis Jacobs

The Red Heifer     Louis Jacobs

The Openness of God: Does Prayer Change God?      William D. Barrick

Elijah Compared to Moses

Moses and Elijah- the most important prophets

God makes a permanent grant of the priesthood to Aaron and his sons James W Watt

The Golden Calf     Jeffrey H. Tigay

The Golden Calves and the Egyptian Concept of Deity     John. N. Oswalt

The Four Stages of Ma’amad Har Sinai    Menachem Leibtag

A Literary Structural Overview of Exod 25-40    Ralph E. Hendrix

Mi kan and ‘Ohel Mo’ed: Etymology, Lexical Definitions, and Extra-Biblical Usage    Ralph E. Hendrix

Miskan and ‘ohel mo’ed in Exodus 25-40     Ralph E. Hendrix

Exodus 31:12 – 40 (Sabbath, 10 Commandments, Golden Calf                       David Colburn

Sacrifice in the Old Testament     F.D. Kidner

Exodus 32 as an argument for traditional theism     Jonathan Master

Dancing and Shining at Sinai – Playing the Man in Exodus 32-34    David Cline

The Problem of Old Testament Ethics                       Elmer A. Martens

Response to Elmer Martens                 Ben C. Ollenburger

Kadesh Barnea is Tell Masos, NOT Ain el Qudeirat (Which is Hazar Addar) ?  Walter Mattfeld what some may regard as a controversial look at Kadesh Barnea.

Moses and the Golden Calf, and the False Images of the True God               Rolf A. Jacobson

The Non-Egyptian Origins of Israel’s Golden Calf Worship Walter Mattfeld examines archaeological findings that look into the origins of some Israelite traditions and challenges the origin of Israel’s “Golden Calf Worship” Mattfeld  argues that it is derived from Canaanite concepts that may have modified earlier Syrian and Mesopotamian sources.

A literary structural analysis of the golden-calf episode in Exodus 32:1-33:6     Ralph E. Hendrix

The Man Who Caused God To Repent (Exodus 32:7-14, 30-35; 33:1-6, 12-17)                                Steven J Cole

The Exodus and the “Miracle” of the Quail at Kib`roth-hatta`avah  Walter Mattfeld  explores the “evidence” for migratory quail in the Sinai and a MEDICAL explanation of the PLAGUE by which Yahweh-Elohim struck down his ungrateful people at Kib`roth-hatta`avah.

The Mishkan: Before or After Chet Ha’Egel?   Menachem Leibtag

Chet Ha’Egel and the 13 Midot of Rachamim    Menachem Leibtag

Breastplate of the High Priest    Morris Jastrow Jr., Ira Maurice Price, Marcus Jastrow and Louis Ginzberg

The Jubilee and the Millennium    David L. Baker

Rebellion, Presence, and Covenant: A Study in Exodus 32- 34     D.R. Davis

Exodus 33 on God’s Face: A Lesson from the Enochic Tradition  Andrei Orlov explores the link between the Enochic account of the divine Presence and the Mosaic account of the divine panim.

Exodus, Psalms and Hebrews: A God Abounding in Steadfast Love (Ex 34:6)    Alphonso Groenewald

The Wrath of Yahweh                               Katrina Poetker

From Sefer Shmot to Vayikra and Bamidbar     Menachem Leibtag 

The Sabbath and the Alien     H.R. Cole

Old Testament Gateway - ydyc.org   Could you please help by notifying us if you notice any broken links on this site.


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