Tabor College Victoria

44-60 Jacksons Road, 


Vic. 3170


Old Testament Gateway





Could you please help by notifying us if you notice any broken links on this site.


Contact Us
Translation Services
Uncategorised  Articles
OT Archaeology
Ancient Near East

Dead Sea Scrolls



Noncanonical Works



Old Testament

O.T.  Apocrypha

Historical Books
1 & 2  Samuel
1 & 2 Kings
1 & 2 Chronicles
Poetical Books
Song of Songs 

Major Prophets
Minor Prophets



search engine by freefind advanced

Searching for answers to life?

My current study resources - Free sign up allows access to all classes to degree level.

Serving the Community since 1998

A donation of just $5.00 or $10 will help maintain and update this site. You can donate via PayPal - it really is easy!

Your Support will Help us Continue Serving


ERESHIT (Book of Genesis) Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of Genesis from the Jewish Publication Society Bible

A Storyline Study of the Bible from Adam to 2400 years after Adam is Mentioned in Genesis Harold Unkles.  This study is a work in process.

Genesis - The Hebrew Text

Genesis - The Traditional Translation with Renderings According to Ibn Nehemiah and Ramban

Torah Class    Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding

Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.


Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective Video messages


Genesis, Jewish Encyclopedia.


Bereishet - Genesis text with Rashi's commentary - Complete Jewish Bible


Genesis - Expositor's Bible Commentary


Genesis - Navigating the Bible


Notes on Genesis   Thomas L. Constable  explains how Genesis reveals that God is faithful to his promises and powerful enough to bring them to fulfillment.

New International Version (Book of Genesis) On-Line.

New English Translation (NET) Bible (Book of Genesis) On-Line

Genesis at Luther Seminary's Enter the Bible. Study basics about Bible books, people, dates, places.


Genesis, Wikipedia.


Genesis   Walking Thru the Bible


Genesis - Geneva Study Bible


Genesis - Matthew Henry's Commentary


Genesis - Wesley's Explanatory Notes


Genesis - Robert Jamieson's Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the whole Bible


Genesis - Scofield Reference Notes


Genesis Bible Commentary  - Dr Bob Utley


On Genesis from the Commentary of the Holy Hippolytus of Rome 170-235 Wikipedia Article


Genesis - Biblenotes


Genesis - Calvin's Commentary - Genesis 1 -23


Genesis - Calvin's Commentary - Genesis 24 - 50


An Introduction to Genesis David Malick 

Outline of the Book of Genesis David Malick


God's Creative Acts according to Genesis 1:1-2:4a                       Robert C. Dunston

Genesis: The Method of Faith        Ray Stedman 

The Law the First Five Books                          J Hampton Keathley III

The Gospel in Genesis           Henry Law          Religious Tract Society

The Law of Sin and Death: Ecclesiastes and Genesis 1-3                       David M. Clemens


Exegetical Notes: Genesis 1:1 - 2:4a John Sailhamer

Analysis and Synthesis of Genesis                Frank DeCanio

An Outline of Genesis Division of Student Ministry Baptist General Convention of Texas

        Creation Genesis 1-2:3 

        The Fall of Man Genesis 3

        Abraham Genesis 11:27-25:11

        Isaac and Jacob Genesis 25:12-37:1

        Joseph Genesis 37:2 - 50:26

Reflections on the Composition of Genesis             Bill T. Arnold    Theories on the composition of the book of Genesis have a long and complicated history. This subject will never lose its fascination or cease to be an object of scholarly speculation, like one or two other topics in biblical studies, such as the "synoptic problem" of the Gospels or the quest for the historical Jesus. No matter how much we protest today that these topics are no longer central to the interpretive enterprise in the twenty-first century, we will no doubt continue to explore new avenues for understanding the origins of these important texts.


Genesis Means Origins    George Robinson


Reading Genesis           David R. Blumenthal


Reading Genesis as a Book   Robert Alter


Reading Genesis Today    Gordon J. Wenham


Reading Genesis with Faith and Reason    Sean McEvenu


The Book of Genesis in the Qur'an    Mark Hillmer

The Bible History, Old Testament   Volume I   The World Before the Flood, and The History of the Patriarchs   Alfred Edersheim

Chiasmus - Reverse Parallelism


Primeval Chronology  William Green


Chronology of the Book of Genesis


Eternal Guidelines for Living


Living in Community with God: God’s Relationship with His People in the Books of Moses         Michael Morrison


Exploring Genesis                    Tim Finlay & Jim Herst 

Genesis: From Paradise to Patriarchs                        Bob Deffinbaugh

Genesis          An expository study of Genesis                 Audio Available                      Steven J Cole

Genesis for Children      Fourteen studies by    Jodi Hooper   Read about Bible Lessons 4 Kidz

Genesis 1                             Bob Utley

Genesis 1: The Evolution vs. Creation Controversy

Beyond the Reach of Science

Bone of My Bone and Flesh of My Flesh       Phyllis A. Bird    The examples of Genesis I and Psalm 8 alert us to two dangers in appeal to biblical statements as authority for contemporary faith.

The Image of God          Charles Lee Feinberg


The Days of Genesis          E.J. Young


Preaching from the Book of Genesis             Mark A. Throntveit


The Wisdom of Creation: A Jewish Perspective            Carol K. Ingall 


The Earth of Genesis 1:2: Abiotic or Chaotic?

The "Days" of Creation in Genesis 1: Literal "Days" or Figurative "Periods/Epochs" of Time  Gerhard F. Hasel

The Significance of the Cosmology in Gen 1 in Relation to Ancient Near Eastern Parallels     G. F. Hasel

Taking Genesis as Inspired   Armin Held and Peter Rust

What's New in Interpreting Genesis   Paul E Koptak. A number of recent studies have been published that offer help to readers and communicators who wish to hear the stories of Genesis as they were intended to be heard and to discover their significance for life at the threshold of a new century.

Interpreting Genesis One    Charles E. Hummel

Genesis: "In the Beginning..." From Creation to Abraham


What Does Genesis 1 Really Teach?


Genesis 1: Are the Six Days of Creation Literal or Figurative?


The Battle Over Genesis 1


No Contest - Why the Argument Over Genesis?


Genesis 1 - 3  -  Creation and Fall             David Colburn


The Law of Sin and Death: Ecclesiastes and Genesis 1-3                       David M. Clemens


Life and Death in Biblical Perspective: An Examination of Genesis 5, Ecclesiastes 1, and 1 Corinthians 15:50-58                         Dan T. Lioy


Genesis 1:-1 Creation or Re-Creation?  Mark F Rooker  examines the theory of a period of chaos after creation (often called the gap theory) and the initial chaos theory, and the second article in the series analyzes the precreation chaos theory, the view endorsed by Waltke and other recent commentators on Genesis .

Genesis 1 - 3 and Male/Female Role Relationship   Michael F Sitzinger  An examination of certain considerations in Genesis 1-3 contributes to a proper view of a hierarchical distinction between male and female.   The first 3 chapters of Genesis consistently argue for a continuing hierarchical order between male and female.


Men and Women in Genesis 1-3


Introduction to Genesis Chapter 1   a study  Dom Henry Wansbrough


The Creation Account in Genesis 1:1 - 3  Bruce K Waltke


Covenant and the Kingdom: Genesis 1- 3 as Foundation for Biblical Theology.  Eugene H Merrill 


The Theology of Sexuality in the Beginning: Genesis 1-2  Richard M Davidson  Deals directly with the question of human sexuality. Not only is human sexuality presented as a basic fact of creation, but an elucidation of the nature of sexuality constitutes a central part of the Creation accounts.  This article focuses upon the theology of sexuality in the creation accounts (Gen 1-2)


Garden Temple    Gregory K. Beale


The Theology of Sexuality in the Beginning: Genesis 3            Richardm M Davidson


The Perplexing Pentateuch    Gordon J. Wenham


Genesis 1-11: The Primeval Story    Barry L. Bandstra


How It All Began: Genesis 1-11                       Bob Utley



The Responsibility of Royalty: Genesis 1-11 and the Care of the Earth    James Limburg


Genesis 12-50: The Ancestral Story    Barry L. Bandstra

Desire and Promise in Genesis   
Hugh C. White


The Liberating Image? Interpreting Imago Dei in Context  Richard J Middleton


Polytheism in Genesis: Ba'al and Ashtoreth vs. Yahweh   Sol Abrams


The Female Threat in Genesis  Shana Mauer  The percieved problem of women in Genesis is a narrative device that is integrated into the text to create subversive tension. They are the hurdles that God overcomes in order for the text to prove God's boundless and all-encompassing power.


The Principles of Interpreting Genesis 1 and 2    Allan A. MacRea


Theistic Evolution and the Hebrew of Genesis 1 - 2    J. Barton Payne


Interpreting Genesis 1-11  Russell T Fuller  The proliferation of methods and approaches characterizes biblical hermeneutics in the twenty-first century. Each method has its own focus.


Male-Female Equality and Male Headship Genesis 1-3                             Raymond C Ortlund Jr


The Atrahasis Epic and its Significance Genesis 1-9    Tika Frymer-Kensky 


I Want a Name for Myself - Genesis 1-11  Paul Borgman   The story we haven't heard


The Geographical Meaning of 'Earth' and 'Seas' in Genesis 1:10   Paul H Seely


The Firmament and the Waters Above   Paul H Seely

From Dominion to Stewardship? The Ecology of Biblical Translation  Leonard Greenspoon  offers an important first step towards serious engagement with the biblical text on environmental issues, even for those with firsthand knowledge of the Hebrew.

Speaking the Language of Canaan  Dennis Bratcher  has written a paper dealing with the Israelite appropriation of metaphors, symbols, and conceptual categories from the "pool" of ancient Middle Eastern culture, noting both the similarities and differences, and the implications both for understanding the OT, as well as for addressing the modern conflict of science and religion.

Comparison of World Views: Perception of the Physical World  Dennis Bratcher  graphic to go with the above article Speaking the Language of Canaan, comparing various ways of understanding and talking about the physical world.


Serving the Community since 1998

A donation of just $5.00 or $10 will help maintain and update this site. You can donate via PayPal - it really is easy!

Your Support will Help us Continue Serving


If you re concerned for your loved ones that you feel are lost please visit


Help Your

The Unity of the Creation Account   William H Shea  Do Genesis 1 and 2 contain two antithetical creation accounts, or are they complementary parts of a unified record? Dr. Shea examines the literary structure and content of these two chapters for an answer.

Literary Structural Parallels between Genesis 1 and 2   William H Shea Literary critics have divided Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 between different authors at different times. Literary techniques employed at several different and parallel junctions (beginning, middle and end) in the two narratives demonstrate a similar writing style, however, and thus point towards a unity of authorship.

Further Observations on the Term 'Seed' in Genesis    T. Desmond Alexander

The Conquest of Chaos: The Biblical Paradigm of Creation and Its Contemporary Relevance    Klaus Nurnberger

Man and Sin: Who Are We? What Happened? What Is Our Destiny?                        Greg Herrick

The Divine Plan of Creation: 1 Cor 11:7 and Gen 2:18-24   Thomas L. Thompson

Genesis 2                                   Bob Utley


Genesis 2:2-3 -- God's "Rest" and the Sabbath

God's Design For Marriage (Genesis 2:18-25)            Steven J Cole

Creation     Kaufmann Kohler and Emil G. Hirsch

Hexaemeron    Anthony Maas

Garden of Eden    Emil G. Hirsch, Mary W. Montgomery, Solomon Schechter, Judah David Eisenstein and M. Seligsohn

The Significance of the 'Sons of God' Episode (Genesis 6.1-4) in the Context of the 'Primaeval History' (Genesis 1-11) by David J. A. Clines

Sons of God and Giants - Cultural and Historical Context In Genesis 6:1-4 Dennis R. Bratcher explores the cultural and historical background of the reference to sons of God, daughters of men, and giants in Genesis

Archaeology and Genesis: What does the record   show Part 1.            Mario Seiglie 


Archaeology and Genesis: What does the record   show Part 2.            Mario Seiglie 


Genesis Reconsidered   Armin Held   Science in Christian Perspective

Genesis Revisited or Revised   Paul H Seely

Genesis a Living Conversation Bill Moyers

Adam    J. Frederic McCurdy

Adam  James F. Driscoll

Genesis 2.2: An Exercise in Interpretive Competence and Performance   Aryeh Newman

The Life of Adam and Eve: The Biblical Story in Judaism and Christianity Gary A. Anderson & Michael E. Stone

Adam and Eve    David Mandel

They Shall Be One            Richard L Strauss

Eve    Emil G. Hirsch, Solomon Schechter and Hartwig Hirschfeld

The Two Stories of Creation   Menachem Leibtag

Because It Had Not Rained     Meredith Klin

Because It Had Not Rained: A Study of Gen. 2:5 - 7 with Implications for Gen. 2:4 - 25 and Gen. 1:1 - 2:3   Mark D. Futato

Adam What are You? The Primeval History Against the Backdrop of Mesopotamian Mythology  Jens Bruun Kofoed

The Garden of Eden a Modern Landscape Carol A. Hill tries to apply the findings of modern geology to Gen. 2:10-14. I deduce from the evidence that the four rivers of Eden--the Pishon, the Gihon, the Hiddekel, and the Euphrates--were real rivers which existed on a modern landscape before Noah's flood.

Bone of My Bone and Flesh of My Flesh  Phyllis A. Bird  explores why the biblical creation texts give such prominent attention to sexual differentiation with reflection on the individual and the species.

Why a "Naked" Adam in Eden- Walter Mattfeld  holds that the Sumerian myths regarding the creation of man AGREE with Genesis

Living in Love: Secrets from Bible Marriages                      Richard L Strauss


Genesis: From Paradise to Patriarchs Robert L. Deffinbaugh Highlights in the History of Israel Part 1.

Mysteries of Genesis Charles Fillmore points out the book of Genesis as the key to the Bible. In the New Testament it is quoted twenty-seven times literally and thirty-eight times substantially.

Genesis World and Word Theology for Christian Ministry

Discourse Analysis and the Interpretation of Gen. 2:4 - 7     Jack Collins

The Hebrews prepared by Washington State University Reader

An Overlooked Message - The Critique of Kings and Affirmation of Equality in the Primeval History Robert K Gnuse   The Primeval History in Genesis 2-11 contains symbolic polyvalent narratives with diverse levels of interpretive possibility. One meaningful level of interpretation is to see how the accounts contain a strident critique of kingship, especially the social economic abuses perpetrated by kings. Kings who receive the strident barbs of the author include not only Mesopotamian rulers, but also, by implication, the rulers of Israel and Judah, who likewise abused their powers. This exilic critique of kings is also, in turn, part of the great biblical message affirming human equality and dignity, and it speaks a powerful egalitarian word to any age.

God: What do the Opening Chapters of Genesis Tell us about Him?   Jim West asks  is the God depicted in Genesis  a loving creator or does he display cruel pitiless control.

The Father who Creates All Things: A Cosmological Perspective of God: Carl Schulz. 'There is perhaps no more fundamental affirmation about God than that of Creator... the bed rock, the foundation on which all other affirmations about Him are made.'

Creation - J & P  Stephen Wiggins

Adam and Adapa: Two Anthropological Characters    N. E. Andreasen

The Documentary Sources in Genesis  Ralph W. Klein

Searching for answers to life?

Serving the Community since 1998

A donation of just $5.00 or $10 will help maintain and update this site. You can donate via PayPal - it really is easy!

Your Support will Help us Continue Serving


Other Creation Epics see Ancient Near East page

Flood Stories form Around the World   Mark Isaak explores extensive and varied flood stories from ancient folklore.

Comparative Creation Chart Creation in Israel and the Ancient Near East

Genesis 1-3: Science? History? Theology? J.A. Thompson Tyndale Lecture - Melbourne This also available for sale if you'd like it.  Purchase here

Selected Portions of the "Enuma Elish"

Babylonian Creation Myth - Enuma Elish 

Enuma Elish  Leonard William King

A Selected Portion of the "Epic of Gilgamesh"

Epic of Gilgamesh  


The Epic of Gilgamesh: Thoughts on genre and meaning      A.R.George

Similarities Between the Flood Story in the "Epic of Gilgamesh" and the Flood Story in the Hebrew Bible (Gen. 6:9-9:17)

Differences Between the Flood Story in the "Epic of Gilgamesh" and the Flood Story in the Hebrew Bible (Gen. 6:9-9:17)

What is Creation? Rereading Genesis 1 & 2 Michael Welker explores the important characteristic of divine creating in the classical creation texts and the concept of unconditional production and causation!

Sabbath Origins and the Epic of Gilgamesh  Walter Mattfeld

The Sabbath/Shabbat as an Eternal Memorial and its Derivation from the Lunar Shupattu Memorial  Walter Mattfeld 

Creation and Evolution: 

The Bible Explanation. Mario Seiglie examines the findings of modern science in the light of scripture.

     Comparative Creation  A look at creation in Genesis and the Ancient Near East.

The Genesis Creation Story & the Theory of Evolution

The Two Genesis Creation Stories

How Religious Conservatives and Liberals Interpret the Bible's Creation Stories

Genesis and the Real World David Roth Or did Moses mean to say, 'at the beginning of time God created space and matter'. Roth argues that Moses' narrative has to do with the real world.

Dinosaurs and the Bible       Ken Ham

Where do Dinosaurs fit with Creation

Genesis: In the Beginning a Bible Study   Mark G. Vitalis Hoffman

Mysteries of Genesis  Charles Fillmore

Genealogies, Seed and the Compositional Unity of Genesis     T. Desmond Alexander

In Search of the Historical Adam  Dick Fischer

The Life of Adam and Eve  Gary A. Anderson & Michael E. Stone

The Old Testament Use of an Archetype: The Trickster    Richard D. Patterson

What Does Eve Do to Help?    David J. A. Cline

he "Fall" - a Second Look - A Literary Analysis of Genesis 2:4-3:24 Dennis R. Bratcher offers an in-depth analysis of the so-called "Fall" narrative in Genesis.

The Fall of Satan in the Thought of St. Ephrem and John Milton  Gary A. Anderson

Did a Form of Evil Exist Before the Fall Daniel J. Dykes explores Isaiah 45:7 where God claims to be the one who creates evil.

The Seduction of Eve and Feminist Readings of the Garden of Eden  Reuven Kimelman Applies an exegesis of assonance, that demands considerable reader involvement, without which he holds that many of the keys to the story's meaning would be missing.

Did Eve Fall or Was She Pushed? Susan L. Greiner  argues that Eve is not a seductress. She neither deceives Adam nor coerces him into eating the fruit. The word "sin" is never applied to Eve; indeed, it does not even appear in the Creation account.

Eve's Answer to the Serpent: An Alternative Paradigm for Sin and Some Implications for Theology     P. Wayne Townsend

Rethinking the Interpretation of Genesis 2.4B-3.24    Lyn M. Bechtel considers that the passage has been used through the centuries as a prooftext for  male supremacy and the inferiority and moral weakness of women and concludes that it  is about maturation. It is a myth that reinforces the values and concerns of monarchical society, which considers the monarchy to be God's intended goal for a mature Israel.

Eve and Pandora Contrasted     William E. Phipps shows that the myths of Eve and Pandora are quite dissimilar in original meaning and argues that it is Western civilisation that has mingled them.

The Call of Wisdom/The Voice of the Serpent: A Canonical Approach to the Tree of Knowledge     Nicholas John Ansell

The Tree and The Serpent: Hieros Gamos of the Self    Michael Brabazon

The Tree of Life: Protological to Eschatological Robert Starke holds that it was in the epiphany of the eschatological Adam and death's inability to overshadow him, that the life-giving tree triumphs, its glory eliminating at last the shadow of death.

The Tree of Life -   P. Watson

The Call of Wisdom/The Voice of the Serpent: A Canonical Approach to the Tree of Knowledge   Nicholas John Ansell

The Crooked Serpent     F. F. Bruce

Two Brothers Reconciled Arthur Waskow From almost the beginning to the very end of the Book of Genesis, one theme whirls through many variations: war and peace between brothers (and one pair of sisters).

The Generations of the Heavens and of the Earth: Egyptian Deities in the Garden of Eden   Gary Greenberg

The Great Reversal: Thematic Links between Genesis 2 and 3    Zdravko Stefanovic

Genesis 3                                   Bob Utley

What Is the Woman's Desire?    Susan T. Foh

Your Urge Shall Be for Your Husband? A New Translation of Genesis 3:16b and a New Interpretation of Genesis 4:7    Hans-Christoph Aurin

Why Didn't Adam and Eve Die at Once?    Walter C. Kaiser, Jr

On Some Versions of Genesis 3.15, Ancient and Modern   Hans Peter Ruge


Recent Translations of Gen. 3:15    W. H. Woudstra,


Woman's Desire for Man: Genesis 3:16 Reconsidered    Irvin A. Busenitz


A Syntactical Note (Genesis 3:15): Is the Woman's Seed Singular or Plural?    Jack Collins 


Further Observations on the Term 'Seed' in Genesis    T. Desmond Alexander


The Great Reversal: Thematic Links Between Genesis 2 and 3    Zdravko Stefanovic


Is Genesis 3 a Fall Story?     Terence E. Fretheim


The Theology of Sexuality in the Beginning: Genesis 3     Richard M. Davidson


Woman's Desire for Man: Genesis 3:16 Reconsidered     Irvin A. Busenitz


What Is the Woman's Desire?     Susan T. Foh


Genesis 4                                   Bob Utley


Genesis 4 - 6:8 Early Humankind                   David Colburn


Slaughter, Fratricide and Sacrilege. Cain and Abel Traditions in 1 John 3    J. Byron


Genesis 4:17-24: A Case-Study in Eisegesis    Maarten J. Pau

Cain     Kaufmann Kohler

Cain    Wendell Reilly

Cain  and Abel   Wikipedia


Cain and Abel      Louis Jacobs

Abel     John Tierney

Abel     J. Frederic McCurdy, Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg and Richard Gottheil

Cain and His Offering    Bruce K. Waltke


The Pre-Mosaic Tithe: Issues and Implications    Mark A. Snoeberger


Genesis 5                                   Bob Utley


The Meaning of the Chronogenealogies of Genesis 5 and 11    Gerhard F. Hasel,

The Ages of the Antediluvian Patriarchs In  Genesis 5                        Andrew P. Kvasnica

A Glimmer of Hope Genesis 5 Jeong Woo (James) Lee Scripture tells us how this world is passing away yet we are called to walk with God by faith.

Enoch, a Man Who Walked with God   Timothy J. Cole

Life and Death in Biblical Perspective: An Examination of Genesis 5, Ecclesiastes 1, and 1 Corinthians 15:50-58          Dan T Lioy

Genealogies in Genesis Daniel J. Dyke explores the debate concerning the genealogies found in Genesis 5 and 11 as to whether they are sequential and complete or if they contain gaps.

Contours of Faith Greg Herrick Scripture reveals the clearest understanding of the object of our faith, namely, God himself.

Genesis 6                                   Bob Utley

"Who are the Sons of God? A Literary-Contextual Approach to Gen. 6:1-4"     An investigation of the purposes of Genesis 6:1-4 'son of God' - 'daughter of man'

As the Days of Noah: A Critical Examination of the `Sons of God' and the Nephilim in Genesis 6:1-4   Ryan Corbi

Demon Semen: Traditional and Metaphysical Assumptions in Early Lutheran and Reformed Treatments of Genesis 6:1-4    Jeffrey Mallinson

A Contextual Identification of the bene ha'elohim and benoth ha'adam in Genesis 6:1-4    Lyle Eslinger

An Exegetical Study of Genesis 6:1-4   Leroy Birney

The Ancient Exegesis of Genesis 6:2, 4    Robert Newman,

Covenants and Pillars of Judaism  Felix Just SJ explores the use of the word covenant commencing with Genesis 6.

Identifying Genesis' Mid-First Millennium BCE Origins via Onomastic Research on Cain and Nimrod  Walter Mattfeld  looks at the archaeological findings and compares them with the Biblical accounts

 Genesis 6:9  - 11 Noah, The Flood, Babel                       David Colburn

Genesis 7                                   Bob Utley

The Antediluvians   William H Shea  A look at those living between creation and the flood.  The links between Babylonian mythology and the Biblical account.

The Flood Story in J and P Forms a look at what is thought to be the account of the two different authors.

A Comparison of Narrative Elements in Ancient Mesopotamian Creation-Flood Stories with

Genesis 1-9   William H Shea  Mesopotamian Creation-Flood stories at 1600 B.C. and the biblical Creation-Flood story (which is similar in content and style) at 600 B.C., with cases of individual Creation and Flood stories intervening between them, would be quite exceptional and unlikely. The biblical Creation-Flood story fits best in the age in which this type of literature was written.

The Flood J &  P  Stephen Wiggins


Who Wrote the Flood Story Richard Elliot Friedman

The Flood: Just a Local Catastrophe    William H Shea   Creationists and evolutionists disagree about the Flood. Creationists argue that the Bible is a divinely inspired document and its record of the Flood describes an actual historical event, a universal deluge. Evolutionists have responded to the biblical narrative in various ways.

The Story of Noah According to Source  Frank Frick Taken from a Journey Through the Hebrew Scriptures.

A Review of Recent Data from the Region of the Ark-Shaped Formation in the Tendurek Mountains of Eastern Turkey   William H Shea Each new discovery has strengthened the case for relating this site to Noah's Ark, but the question still remains as to whether there is sufficient scientific evidence with which to confirm or deny this identification with a greater degree of accuracy.

The Seven Noahide Laws  Exegesis of genesis 2:16-17 that led to the tradition of the Noahide Laws.

Genesis 8                                   Bob Utley

Reading the Rainbow  Rachel Muers

The Biblical View of the Extent of the Flood     Gerhard F. Hasel

The Genesis Flood     Mark F. Rooker

The Theology of the Flood Narrative    David J.A. Clines

Jubilee Calendar Rescued from the Flood Narrative     S. Najm & Ph. Guillaume

Biblical Evidence for the Universality of the Genesis Flood      Richard M. Davidson, Andrews University

Vineyard, Farm, and Garden: The Drunkenness of Noah in the Context of Primeval History    Devora Steinmetz

The Structure of the Genesis Flood Narrative and Its Implications     William H. Shea

Noah     J. Frederic McCurdy, Wilhelm Bacher, M. Seligsohn, Emil G. Hirsch and Mary W. Montgomery

Noah     Florentine Bechtel

Noach    Menachem Leibtag

Noah    David Mandel

Noah   Wikipedia

Genesis Flood Narrative     Wikipedia

The Flood   Emil G. Hirsch

Deluge    Anthony Maas

Noah's Flood    Rabbi Louis Jacobs

Genesis 9                                   Bob Utley

Noah's Nakedness and the Curse on Canaan (Genesis 9:20-27)    John Seitze Bergsma and Scott Walker Hahn

Original Dishonor Noah's Curse and the Southern Defense of Slavery  Stephen R Haynes  Noah's curse may not have been about race in the minds of all antebellum southern divines; but without question it appears to have been about slavery and honor

Studies in the Book of Genesis, Part 1: The Curse of Canaan    Allen P. Ross

The Rainbow in Jewish Symbolism   Louis Jacobs

Rainbow  Emil G. Hirsch, Immanuel Benzinger, Wilhelm Bacher and Judah David Eisenstein

"Noah's Younger Brother": The Anti-Noachic Polemics in 2 Enoch    Andre A. Orlov

Serving the Community since 1998


Your Support will Help us Continue Serving



 Other Flood Accounts see Ancient Near East page



Help Your

The Sumerian King List: Translation

Unraveling the Japheth Mystery (Genesis 9:25-27)  Walter Mattfeld attempts to unravel this mystery

Who Were the Hebrews   Gerald A Larue  The descendents of Shem, one of Noah's sons and eventually Abraham.

Genesis 10                                   Bob Utley

Nimrod and the Tower of Babel: Genesis 10-11 in17th-Century Quaker Writings    Esther Greenleaf Murer 

 From Faith to Faith -- Essays on Old Testament Literature  B. Davie Napier   The Old Testament conveys the impression of coherent unity -- a unity achieved in the central themes and presuppositions of the community of Israel. The people of Israel understand the terms of their own existence, and its essential meaning, in the Yahweh-Abraham covenant.

Unraveling the Mystery of Early Israel's Origins: Archaeology, Abraham and the Philistines  Walter Mattfeld  looks at the archaeological findings and compares them with the Biblical accounts.

Genesis and Family Values  David L Petersen  tries to take seriously the notion of family values, particularly as they derive from biblical literature. In that regard, he has focused on the family in the book of Genesis, a biblical book that, for multiple reasons, may serve as a source for reflection about the family in theHebrew Bible.

The Ancestor's Family Tree

Family and Society in Ancient Israel    A study of ancient Israel's social organisation and patrilineal descent.

The Rescue of Lot Ken Collins attempts to rescue this Bible text from the crossfire of dispute, restoring its original theological significance and devotional value.

Capital Punishment Mandated by God?   Walter C. Kaiser, Jr

Studies in the Book of Genesis, Part 1: The Curse of Canaan   Allen P. Ross

The Table of Nations: The "Also Peoples"   Kenneth A. Matthews

Studies in the Book of Genesis, Part 2: The Table of Nations in Genesis 10   Allen P. Ross

Studies in the Book of Genesis, Part 3: The Table of Nations in Genesis 10 - Its Content    Allen P. Ross

Studies in the Book of Genesis. Part 4: The Dispersion of the Nations in Genesis 11:1-9      Allen P. Ross

Genesis 11                                   Bob Utley

Abraham and the Merchants of Ura     Cyrus H. Gordon

Language as Expression of Unity and Diversity: From Babel to Pentecost and Beyond    John Kinder

The Date of the Tower of Babel and Some Theological Implications    Paul H. Seely

Babel and Derrida:  Postmodernism, Language and Biblical Interpretation    Craig G. Bartholomew

The Mesopotamian Background of the Tower of Babel Account and Its Implications   John H. Walton

The Dispersion of the Nations in Gen 11:1-9    Allen P. Ross

Tower of Babel     Anthony Maas

Tower of Babel    Morris Jastrow Jr., Ira Maurice Price, Marcus Jastrow, Louis Ginzberg and Duncan B. McDonald

The Site of the Tower of Babel (Gen. xi.1-9)    John P. Peters

Introduction to Genesis 11:24-13:18         Bob Utley

The Naming of Isaac: The Role of the Wife/Sister Episodes in the Redaction of Genesis    John Ronning

A Thrice-Told Tale: Genre, Theme, and Motif   David L. Petersen  A study of the wife-sister motif in Genesis 12, 20, and 26.

Genesis 12 - 16 Abraham - Part 1                  David Colburn

The Wives' Tales of Genesis 12, 20 & 26 and the Covenants at Beer-Sheba    James K. Hoffmeier

Patriarchal Religion As Portrayed in Genesis 12-50    Augustine Pagolu

  Genesis 12                                   Bob Utley

lessing in the Old Testament: A Study of Gen. 12:3    Paul Rotenberry

Introduction to the Patriarchs


Abraham    Charles J. Mendelsohn, Kaufmann Kohler, Richard Gottheil and Crawford Howell Toy

Abraham    James Howlett

Abraham   Wikipedia

Abraham's Faith Journey - the macrostructure of the Abraham story Dennis R. Bratcher notes the governing ideas and themes that give coherence to the larger narrative. 

Abraham Not the Father of Ishmael and the Arabs  Walter Mattfeld argues that the pre-biblical history of the Arabs portrays a different picture.

Abraham the Archetype of Faith: "There Is No God But God!"    Harold Vogelaar

Abraham in History and Tradition, Part I     Donald J. Wiseman

Abraham in History and Tradition, Part II    Donald J. Wiseman

Yes, My Lord - The Story of Abraham and Sarah            Richard L Strauss

Sarah (Sarai)     Emil G. Hirsch, Wilhelm Bacher, Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Joseph Jacobs,and Mary W. Montgomery

Sarah     Catholic Encyclopedia

Sarah     Wikipedia

The Family of Abraham Felix Just SJ  provides a chart to explore Abraham's descendants.

An Exegetical Reading of the Abraham Narrative in Genesis: Semantic, Textuality and Theology    Kyu Sik Hong

Blessing in the Old Testament: A Study of Gen. 12:3     Paul Rotenberry

For What Purpose Did God Choose Avraham?    Menachem Leibtag, in Memory of Rabbi Avraham Leibtag

Four promises of Zera V'aretz   
Menachem Leibtag

Genesis 13                                   Bob Utley

The Rescue of Lot  Ken Collins attempts to rescue the account from the crossfire of dispute, restoring its original theological significance and devotional value.

Lot     Francis X.E. Albert

Lot     Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn, Solomon Schechter and Joseph Jacobs

David Mandel

Lot   Wikipedia

The Rescue of Lot - argues against perceiving a sexual dimension in the Genesis 19 narrative

The Binding of Isaac W. Dow Edgerton explores the story of Abraham's sacrifice and concludes that there are as many methods of interpretation as there are interpreters.

The Verbal System of Classical Hebrew in the Joseph Story: An Approach from Discourse Analysis    Yoshinobu Endo

Joseph and Aseneth Mark Goodacre A tale told about the Biblical Patriarch Joseph and his Egyptian wife Aseneth.

Genesis 14                                   Bob Utley

Melchizedek: Genesis 14:17 - 20 in the Targums, in Rabbinic and Early Christian Literature      Martin McNamara

Melchizedek in the MT, LXX, and the NT    J. A. Fitzmeyer

Melchizedek as a Divine Mediator     J. Davila

The Melchizedek Citations in the Letter to the Hebrews    Alan R. Millard

Melchizedek Legend of 2 (Slavonic) Enoch    Andre Orlov

Melchizedek, Michael, and War in Heaven  James R. Davila

Melchizedek    Isidore Singer and Kaufmann Kohler

The Antiquity of the Divine Title EL ELYON in Gen. xiv      James A. Kelso

Eliezer of Damascus    Julius A. Bewer

The Pre-Mosaic Tithe: Issues and Implications     Mark A. Snoeberger

Genesis 15                                   Bob Utley

Genesis 15: An Exercise in Translation Principles    Raymond R. Rickards

Gender, Class, and Androcentric Compliance in the Rapes of Enslaved Women in the Hebrew Bible     Susanne Scholz

Reinterpreting Hagar's Story  Jessica Grimes

The interpretation of the Sarah-Hagar stories in rabbinic and patristic literature Irene Pabst

The Naming of Isaac: The Role of the Wife/Sister Episodes in the Redaction of Genesis    John Ronning

Isaac     Jewish Encyclopedia


Isaac     Wikipedia

Neith and the Two Biblical Deborahs: One and the Same    Gary Greenberg  The bible makes reference to two separate women named Deborah. One was the nurse to Abraham's son Isaac and the other was, in the much later period of the Judges, a military leader referred to as "a mother in Israel". In this paperit is argued that both Deborahs were mythological figures based on Hebrew recollections of the goddess Neith, the goddess who ruled in the area of Egypt where Israel dwelled in earlier times

Looking for Abraham's City  Daniel J. Estes

Abraham Had Two Sons: A Study in Pauline Hermeneutics     F. F. Bruce

Covenant   Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg, Richard Gottheil, Isaac Broyde, Emil G. Hirsch and J. Frederic McCurdy

Genesis 16                                   Bob Utley

Ishmael  Isidore Singer, M. Seligsohn, Richard Gottheil and Hartwig Hirschfeld

Ismael    Francis Gigot

 David Mandel

Ishmael   Wikipedia

Genesis 17                                   Bob Utley

 Genesis 17 - 25:18 Abraham -- Part 2                       David Colburn

From My Flesh I Would Behold God: Imaginal Representation and Inscripting Divine Justice, Preliminary Observations   Elliot R. Wolfson

Genesis 18                                   Bob Utley

It Takes Two (or More): Genesis 18-19 and Communal Theophany    Brantley Craig

Just us - or Justice: a comment on Wolfson's reading of Genesis 18    Dov Nelkin

The Man Who Bargained With God (Genesis 18:16-33)                  Steven J Cole

On the Particular and the Universal  Steven Kepnes

Re-Figuring Hospitality: Interpreting Incarnation in Genesis 18-19    
Willie Young

Genesis 19                                   Bob Utley

Homosexuality: The Biblical-Christian View - in the Old Testament      Sodom and Gomorrah Genesis 19:1-11        Tony Tucci   

"The Old Testament Attitude to Homosexuality,"    Gordon J Wenham

Sodom    Joseph Jacobs and Schulim Ochser

Sodom and Gomorrah   Wikipedia

Avraham and Sdom     Menachem Leibtag

Genesis  20                                   Bob Utley

Reinterpreting Hagar's Story    Jessica Grimes

The interpretation of the Sarah-Hagar stories in rabbinic and patristic literature    Irene Pabst

Genesis  21                                   Bob Utley

Hagar's Wilderness Sojourn (Genesis 21:15-21)    Paul Lindemulder

The Birth of Isaac: Genesis 21:1-7    Wendell W. Frerichs

Isaac      Isidore Singer and Isaac Broyde

Isaac      Francis Gigot

Isaac     Wikipedia

Hagar     Solomon Schechter, Gotthard Deutsch, Emil G. Hirsch, Hartwig Hirschfeld

David Mandel

Hagar     Wikipedia

Genesis  22                                   Bob Utley

Sacrificing Our Future (Genesis 22)     Rick R. Marrs

The Atonement and Human Sacrifice    David R. Dilling

The Role of Genesis 22:1 - 19 in the Abraham Cycle: A Computer-Assisted Textual Interpretation  Robert D. Bergen

The Test of Abraham: Genesis 22:1 - 19         John I. Lawlor

Isaac Multiplex: Genesis 22 in a New Historical Representation    Christo Lombaard

The Sacrifice of Isaac in Qumran Literature    Joseph A. Fitzmeyer

The Akeda or the Sacrifice of Isaac: Creative Readings of a Text    Joe Mulrooney

God, Abraham, and the Abuse of Isaac    Terence E. Fretheim

The Role of Genesis 22:1-19 in the Abraham Cycle: A Computer- Assisted Textual Interpretation    Robert D. Bergen

The Binding of Isaac    W. Dow Edgerton

The Akedah: Binding Isaac   
 Louis Jacobs

Genesis  23                                   Bob Utley

The Naming of Isaac: The Role of the Wife/Sister Episodes in the Redaction of Genesis    John Ronning

The Sabbatical/Jubilee Cycle and the Seven-Year Famine in Egypt C. Carmichael. The Jubilee linked back to Joseph's counsel regarding the famine in Egypt.

Genesis  24                                   Bob Utley


Jacob    Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn, Solomon Schechter and Julius H. Greenstone

Jacob    Francis Gigot

Jacob    Louis Jacobs

Jacob   Wikipedia

Jacob                  Hampton Keathly  IV

Jacob and Esau    Gary Inbinder

The Structure of the Jacob Narrative

Jacob's Model Prayer             Charles Haddon Spurgeon

Rebekah    Emil G. Hirsch

David Mandel

Rebekah   Wikipedia

The Naming of Isaac: The Role of the Wife/Sister Episodes in the Redaction of Genesis    John Ronning

 Genesis  25                                   Bob Utley

Election and Transformation Genesis 25: 19-34 Lawrence Semel. The truth of the sovereignty of God and the glories of the doctrine of election. Jacob knew that election called for responsibility. What he had to learn was that his responsibility must be, above all else, the manifestation of a character that in all respects was conformed to the divine will.

Genesis 25:19 - 36 Isaac, Jacob, Esau                     David Colburn

Election and Transformation (Genesis 25:19-34)    Lawrence Semel

Esau      Frants Buhl, Emil G. Hirsch and Solomon Schechter

Esau   Wikipedia

From Avraham to Yitzchak to Yaakov: Which Son is Chosen?    Menachem Leibtag

Yitzchak's Blessing of Yaakov and Esav   
Menachem Leibtag

Genesis  26                                   Bob Utley

Celebrating and Sharing the Gift: Reflections on Jacob, Israel's Ancestor  Ralph W. Klein  explores the presence of God in Jacob's dream at Bethel, his wrestling with God at Penuel and his reunion with his brother Esau.

Genesis  27                                   Bob Utley

Jacob's Vision: The Founding of Bethel     Allen P. Ross

Genesis  28                                   Bob Utley

Bethel: House of God (Genesis 28:10-22)    William D. Dennison

Jacob's Vision: The Founding of Bethel    Allen P. Ross

Yaakov's Dream, Am Yisrael's Future    
Menachem Leibtag

Rachel    Emil G. Hirsch

David Mandel

Rachel     Wikipedia

Never Satisfied! - The Story of Jacob and Rachel     Richard L Strauss

Bethel: House of God Genesis 28:10-22 William D Dennison Jacob can leave Canaan because God has revealed a better country to him. That better country is Bethel, the house of God, the final redemption of his people.

Genesis  29                                   Bob Utley

Celebrating and Sharing the Gift: Reflections on Jacob, Israel's Ancestor     Ralph W. Klein

Leah and Rachel: A Tale of Two Sisters    Joan Ross-Burstall

The Chronology and Birth of Jacob's Children by Leah and Her Handmaid      Charles L. Zimmerman

Another Look at Rachel's Theft of the Teraphim    Moshe Greenberg

Genesis  30                                   Bob Utley

Jacob at the Jabbok, Israel at Peniel    Allen P. Ross

"You Have Prevailed": The Function of Jacob's Encounter at Peniel in the Jacob Cycle     S. McKenzie

Genesis  31                                   Bob Utley

Genesis  32                                   Bob Utley

  The Master-Key, Opening The Gate Of Heaven                                        Charles Haddon Spurgeon

Jacob's Wrestling Match - Was it an Angel or Esau  Jack Miles

On Jacob's Wrestling Episode    Walter Brueggemann

Yaakov's Name Change to Yisrael    
Menachem Leibtag

Jacob at the Jabbok, Israel at Peniel    Allen P. Ross

Genesis  33                                   Bob Utley

What is Yaakov Doing in Shechem?     Menachem Leibtag

Genesis  34                                  Bob Utley

Dinah  Eduard Konig, Emil G. Hirsch, Louis Ginzberg and Caspar Levias

Dinah   Wikipedia

The Silence in Dinah's Cry    Ron Clark

What Really Happened to Dinah  Suzanne Scholtz offers a  feminist analysis of Genesis 34.

Reclaiming Dinah    Lael Aucion

Feminist Hermeneutics and Evangelical Concerns: The Rape of Dinah as a Case Study    Robin Parry

Source Criticism & Genesis 34    Robin Parry

Neith and the Two Biblical Deborahs: One and the Same     Gary Greenberg

Genesis  35                                   Bob Utley

Joseph for Children     Nine studies by    Jodi Hooper   Read about Bible Lessons 4 Kidz

On Joseph and His Brothers    Walter Brueggemann


Joseph   Jewish Encyclopedia

Joseph   Wikipedia

Who Really Sold Yosef?    Menachem Leibtag

Yosef and his Brothers  
Menachem Leibtag

Genesis  36                                   Bob Utley

Lothan [Gen. 36:20] and Leviathan [Psalm 104:26]                    Charles F. Pfeiffer

Genesis  37                                   Bob Utley

Genesis 37 - 50 Joseph                               David Colburn

Benjamin    Richard Gottheil, Kaufmann Kohler, Marcus Jastrow, Louis Ginzberg and Duncan B. McDonald

Benjamin   Wikipedia

Joseph in Egypt     Charles Ailing,

The Oak of Weeping    Shaul Bar

Israelite Sheepshearing and David's Rise to Power   Jeffrey C. Geoghegan

Genesis  38                                   Bob Utley

An Exegetical Study of Genesis 38    S. D. Mathewson

Genesis 38: Its Context(s) and Function    Edward M. Curtis

Terminological Patterns and Genesis 38     Wilfried Warning

Rescue from Fiery Death Daniel Ch 3 and Genesis Cha 38          Zvi Ron

Dan     A. J. Rowe

Dan   Jewish Encyclopedia

Dan    Wikipedia

Tamar     David Mandel

Tamar               Jewish Encyclopedia

Tamar              Wikipedia

Genesis  39                                   Bob Utley

Potiphar's Wife and the Cultural Template of Sacred Sexuality     Thalia Gur-KleinTerminological patterns and Genesis 39   Wilfried Warning

What Mitzvot Did the Avot Keep? 
Menachem Leibtag

Genesis  40                                   Bob Utley

The Sabbatical/Jubilee Cycle and the Seven-Year Famine in Egypt   C. Carmichael

Joseph in Egypt Part 1 -- Part 2 -- Part 3 -- Part 4 -- Part 5 -- Part 6

Genesis  41                                   Bob Utley

Religious Canon and Literary Identity   Mieke Bal

Genesis  42                                   Bob Utley

Genesis  43                                   Bob Utley

Genesis  44                                   Bob Utley

Genesis  45                                   Bob Utley

Genesis  46                                   Bob Utley

Jacob's Blessing on Pharaoh: An Interpretation of Genesis 46:31 - 47:26    J. L. McKenzie

Genesis  47                                   Bob Utley

A Consideration of the Identity of the Pharaoh of Genesis 47     James R. Battenfield

Genesis  48                                   Bob Utley

From Breishit to Shmot  Menachem Leibtag   -   When Yaakov and family depart for Egypt, are they planning "yerida?" In other words, do they intend to make Egypt their permanent home, or are they planning just a 'short visit?'

Bracha, Bechira, or Bechora? 
Menachem Leibtag

Genesis  49                                   Bob Utley

An Early Text for later Messianic Conceptions Greg Herrick examines Genesis 49: 8-12 in an attempt to show Davidic regal conceptions in the Old Testament as backdrop for the New Testament presentation of the Messiah.

Serving the Community since 1998

A donation of just $5.00 or $10 will help maintain and update this site. You can donate via PayPal - it really is easy!

Your Support will Help us Continue Serving


Searching for answers to life?


Victim and Victimizer: Joseph's Interepretation of his Destiny  Yiu-Wing Fung


Genesis  50                                   Bob Utley


Evolutionary Tales: Rhyme and Reason on Creation/Evolution  Ronald L. Ecker  presents evolutionary theory and the pseudoscientific nature of "creation science" through a recasting - complete with rhymed iambic pentatmeter verse - of Chaucer's classic and attempts to interest readers in further study of science in general and of the creation/evolution controversy in particular.


Dating the Pentateuch, Genesis and the Archaeological Anomalies and Anachronisms  Walter Mattfeld  looks at the archaeological findings and compares them with the Biblical accounts.


A look at some of the  Myths and Motifs of the Ancient Near East that reflect with comparisons in the Genesis

Genesis' Genesis, The Hebrew Transformation of the Ancient Near Eastern Myths and Their Motifs Walter Mattfeld

The Garden of Eden and Its Mesopotamian Prototypes, Including the Serpent who Offered Immortality to Man  Walter Mattfeld

The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and the Tree of Life in the Garden of Eden (The Ancient Near Eastern Motifs behind)  Walter Mattfeld

The Pre-Biblical Origins of Cherubim (And The Mercy Seat Atop the Ark of the Covenant)  Walter Mattfeld


Do dogs go to heaven? 

Could you please help by notifying us if you notice any broken links on this site.