Old Testament Gateway - An academic site for the Old Testament



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Biblical Training - FRee Bible Classes to Help You Grow SpirituallyMy current study resources – Free sign up allows access to all classes to degree level.


Torah Class    Old Testament Bible Study for a New Testament Understanding Torah is the Hebrew word for the first 5 books of the Bible and it is the foundation of the Old Testament just as the Old Testament is the foundation of the New. The Old Testament (Tanach) is the Holy Scripture that Jesus (Yeshua, in Hebrew) taught from, and His Disciples referred to, since there was no New Testament until well after the time of the Apostles that succeeded Him. The Old and New Testaments are inseparable and only when used together do we have a complete, unified, divinely-inspired Bible. Torah Class cross-references the Torah and Old Testament passages with New Testament passages to reveal their seamless continuity.  

Some excellent teaching from a Hebrew perspective  Video Messages  

YISSHEYAH (Book of Isaiah)  Massoretic, Hebrew, Aramaic, JPS, Kaplan texts of Genesis from the Jewish Publication Society Bible

Isaiah Jewish Encyclopedia

Book of Isaiah Jewish Encyclopedia

Yeshayahu- Isaiah text with Rashi’s commentary – Complete Jewish Bible

Isaiah – Expositor’s Bible Commentary

Notes on Isaiah   Thomas L. Constable

Contemporary English Version (CEV) (Book of Isaiah) On-Line

New International Version (NIV) (Book of Isaiah) On-Line

New English Translation (NET) (Book of Isaiah) On-Line

New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) (Book of Isaiah) On-Line

Isaiah  – at Luther Seminary’s Enter the Bible. Study basics about Bible books, people, dates, places.

Isaiah     Wikipedia

Isaiah Walk Thru the Bible Isaiah 

Geneva Study Bible Isaiah  

Matthew Henry’s Commentary Isaiah

Wesley’s Explanatory Notes Isaiah

Robert Jamieson’s Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the whole Bible Isaiah

Scofield Reference Notes Isaiah     1-39  

Dr Bob Utley Isaiah     40 – 66  

Dr Bob Utley Isaiah- World Wide Study Bible Isaiah

Bible Notes Isaiah – Calvin’s Commenmtary   1 – 16 Isaiah

Calvin’s Commenmtary   17 – 32 Isaiah

Calvin’s Commenmtary   33 – 48 Isaiah

Calvin’s Commenmtary   49 – 66  


An Introduction to Isaiah                 David Malick

An Argument of the Book of Isaiah – Outline             David Malick

Outline of Isaiah                   Robert C. Dunston 

An Outline of Isaiah                Robert C. Dunston

On the Prophet Isaiah      Hippolytus

1. Introduction to  Isaiah             2. Continuation of Isaiah   Division of Student Ministry Baptist General Convention of Texas

Isaiah: The Salvation of the Lord          Ray Stedman 

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The Function of Imprecation in Israel’s Eighth Century Prophets     Pierre Gilbert

Selected Bibliography on the Book of Isaiah                  David Malick

Texts to Transform Life: Reading Isaiah as Christians             Roy F. Melugin

Isaiah                      Homer Heater Jr

Isaiah: The Prophet And His Day – Chapters 1-39                           Bob Utley
 Isaiah: The Clearest Old Testament Witness to YHWH’s Eternal, Universal, Redemptive Plan – The Prophet and The Future – Chapters 40-66                             Bob Utley

  The Book of Isaiah                Allen Ross

Isaiah Overview, Part 1                     Gordon Graham

Isaiah, Part 2: God’s Redemptive Plan for Mankind             Gordon Graham

A Note on Paul’s Use of Isaiah                       Douglas A. Oss

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Isaiah, Micah, Psalm, Hosea (Isaiah Prophesies Judgment and the Messiah, also, Micah and Hosea Prophesy and Hezekiah is Faithful)          David Colburn

The Man Who Cried For God to Come Down  (Isaiah 63:15-64:12)                David Colburn     

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Psalms, Isaiah (Isaiah Prophesies Hope)                David Colburn

2 Kings, 2 Chronicles, Jonah, Isaiah, Amos, (Elisha, Jonah, Isaiah, Amos)                 David Colburn

Isaiah  – Reading the Old Testament  Barry L. Bandstra introduces helps that are available, and teaches how to read the Old Testament text by modeling the process. His aim is to survey the content of the Old Testament and illustrate how modern discoveries can enrich one’s understanding of the biblical text. Includes comprehensive Study Guides.

Isaiah and the Assyrians                 Ralph W. Klein

  The Unity and Authorship of Isaiah:  A Needless Battle        Dennis Bratcher       A survey of the debate about the authorship of Isaiah and why is has been so divisive in the church.

The Authorship of Isaiah                             Edward J. Young

The Unity of the Book of Isaiah: Linguistic and other Evidence of Undivided Authorship                 Letitia D Jeffreys

Oswald T Allis and the Question of Isaianic Authorship                John Halsey Wood Jr

Isaiah and Micah                Gerald A. Larue 

Life and Literature of the Late Period            Gerald A. Larue 

The Purpose of the Book of Isaiah                               William J. Dumbrell

New Observations on the Date of Isaiah                      John H. Walton

Isaiah’s Immanuel                           Edward E. Hindson

A Suggestion Regarding Isaiah’s Immanuel                               Frank Chamberlin Porter

Trust in the Lord’: Hezekiah, Kings and Isaiah                             John W Olley

The Nations in Isaiah: Friend or Foe; Servant or Partner         John N. Oswalt  

Men Spake from God                           H.L. Ellison

Evangelical Commentaries on Isaiah                            Martin J. Selman

Commentary7: Proverbs to Isaiah        Charles Simeon

Isaiah        Charles Simeon

The Unity of Isaiah                       John James Lias

The ‘Servant Songs’ in the Unity of Isaiah                            J. Alec Motyer

The Quatrain in Isaianic Poetry                           John E. Worgul

The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in the Light of History and Archaeology                           Robert H Kennett

The Nature of Faith in Isaiah of Jerusalem                   G.C.I. Wong

Is There A Narrative Substructure Underlying the Book of Isaiah?          Robin Routledge

Undisclosed Speech: Patterns of Communication in the Book of Isaiah               Hannah Liss

Two Views of Prophecy                           Oswald T. Allis

The Isaiah Memoir Reconsidered                  H.G.M. Williamson

Unwelcome Words from the Lord: Isaiah’s Messages               Rolf A. Jacobson

Sennacherib’s Attack on Hezekiah            Alan R. Millard

Rebels from Beginning to End             Richard Nysse

The Cyrus Notations of Deutero-Isaiah                     Ronald E. Manahan

The Song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32.1-43) and Isaianic Prophecies: A Case of Early Intertextuality?                    R. Bergey

The Nature of Faith in Isaiah of Jerusalem                 G.C.I. Wong

Undisclosed Speech: Patterns of Communication in the Book of Isaiah              Hanna Liss

Economic Plunder as a Leitmotif in LXX-Isaiah               Ronald L. Troxel

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 1   Text with commentary

Short Note on the Structure of Isaiah 1          James T. Dennison Jr

A Tale of Two Cities: Isaiah and Worship (Isaiah 1:1-31; 6:1-8)              James T. Dennison Jr

Isaiah 1:18  –  Declaration, Exclamation or Interrogation?             Robert Duncan Culver

Isaiah ben Amoz: Political Prophet (Isaiah 1-39)     Michael Fishbane.    

Some Notes on Writing a Commentary: Isaiah 1-12                 A Groenewald

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 2               Text with commentary

When the Messianic Vision Recedes: YHWH’s Kingship & the Mosaic Figure in Second Isaiah and Book Four of the Psalter        Sophia H.Y. Chen

“To Whom Then Will You Compare Me?” Agency in Second Isaiah                     Frederick J. Gaiser

An Old Woman and the Sermon of Second Isaiah              Laura J. Nelson

The Eschatological Dimensions of Isaiah                            Erroll Hulse

Isaiah 2:2-5       Pope John Paul II

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 3                  Text with commentary

Isaiah 3:1-15 A Commentary               Solomon B. Freehof  

Jewelry of Bible Times and the Catalog of Isa 3:18-23  PART 1                                 Elizabeth E. Platt

Jewelry of Bible Times and the Catalog of Isa 3:18-23  PART 2                                 Elizabeth E. Platt

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 4                   Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 5                    Text with commentary

The Use of Isaiah 5,1-7 in the Parable of the Tenants (Mark 12,1-12; Matthew 21,33-46)            Wim J.C. Weren

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 6                     Text with commentary

Isaiah’s Ascent to See the Beloved: An Ancient Jewish Source for the Ascension of Isaiah          Robert G. Hall

“Our Eyes Will See the Beauty of the King”: The Esthetics of Kingship               Kathryn L. Roberts

The Motif of Deafness and Blindess in Isaiah 6:9-10 A Contextual, Literary, and Theological Analysis                Geoffrey D. Robinson

Yeshayahu 6:1-13                      Menachem Leibtag

Problem of Isaiah 6:13                                 Udo F. Ch. Worschech

The Infinite in a Finite Organical Perception (Isaiah VI 1-5)                   Lyle Eslinger

Isa 6:9-13 in the context of Isaiah’s theology                    Craig A. Evans

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 7                       Text with commentary

The Word ‘almah in Isaiah 7:14: A New Etymology              Eugen J. Pentiuc  

Context and content in the Interpretation of Isaiah 7:14                          J. Alec Moty

A Suggestion Regarding Isaiah’s Immanuel                               Frank Chamberlin Porter

Isa 7:14: what’s in a name?                 John H. Walton

How Many Virgin Births Are In The Bible? (Isaiah 7:14): A Prophetic Pattern Approach        Paul D. Wegner

Isaiah’s Christmas Children: Shear-jashub (Isaiah 7:1-9)          Charles G. Dennison

Isaiah’s Christmas Children: Immanuel (Isaiah 7:1-16; 8:5-8)                 Charles G. Dennison

Isaiah’s Immanuel                       Edward E. Hindson

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 8                         Text with commentary

Isaiah’s Christmas Children: Maher-shalal-hash-baz (Isaiah 8:1-15; Matthew 18:1-4)                Charles G. Dennison

Isaiah’s Christmas Children: The Glory Child (Isaiah 8:16-9:7)               Charles G. Dennison

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 9                       Text with commentary      

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 10                     Text with commentary   

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 11                     Text with commentary  

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 12                     Text with commentary

Isaiah 12:1-6                          Pope John Paul II

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 13                       Text with commentary

Serving Notice on Babylon: The Canonical Function of Isaiah 13-14              A. Joseph Everson

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 14                          Text with commentary 

Is “Lucifer” the Devil in Isaiah 14:12? – The KJV Argument against Modern Translations             Daniel B. Wallace

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 15                       Text with commentary  

Flying Serpents                                                 Donald J. Wiseman

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 16                        Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 17                         Text with commentary Yeshayahu – Isaiah –

Chapter 18                         Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 19                         Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 20                         Text with commentary

Caught in the Middle: Jeremiah’s Vocational Crisis                   Terence E. Fretheim

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 21                         Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 22                         Text with commentary 

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 23                         Text with commentary

‘Tarshish Has Perished’: The Crux of Isaiah 23:10                Michael L. Barre

Tyre’s “70 Years” in Isaiah 23,15-18                     Mark Leuchter

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 24                         Text with commentary

Eschatology and Office (Isaiah 24:23)                 Charles G. Dennison

A Brief Discussion of MT Isaiah 24,14-16            Wilson de Angelo

Death, Leviathan, and Martyrs: Isaiah 24:1-27:1                       Meredith G. Kline

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 25                          Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 26                           Text with commentary

The Grammar of Resurrection in Isaiah 26:19a-c                    Philip C. Schmitz

The Intertextual Relationship of Daniel 12:2 and Isaiah 26:19: Evidence from Qumran and the Greek Versions              Daniel P. Bailey

Isaiah 26:1-4, 7-9, 12                       Pope John PauIl I

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 27                             Text with commentary

Dinosaurs and the Bible – Contradiction?       Joshua M. Spaulding   Isaiah   27:1    Isaiah   30:6  Jeremiah 61:34   Psalms 74:13  Job   40:15-24    Job 41:19-21    The existence of dinosaurs and the Bible – do they contradict one another? Many secularists would say they do. But what do the facts point to? Let’s take a look at the facts and see if we can settle this matter. It is true that the word “dinosaur” is not used anywhere in the Bible. That is because the word “dinosaur” was not coined until 1841 when Dr. Richard Owen came up with the word, which means “terrible lizard.”

The Preposition B in Isaiah 27:13                                  Frank Charles Fensham

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 28                             Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 29                              Text with commentary

The Siege and Deliverance of the City of David in Isaiah 29:1-8              Robin L. Routledge

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 30                               Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 31                               Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 32                                Text with commentary

The Righteous King – The Just Kingdom (Isaiah 32:1-30           James T. Dennison Jr

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 33                                Text with commentary

Isaiah 33:13-16                   Pope John Paul II

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 34                                 Text with commentary

Isaiah 34 and its position in the prophecy                                    Edward J. Young

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 35                                  Text with commentary

Isaiah 35: Exposition and Biblical Theology                      Robert Asher

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 36                                  

Isaiah 36-39: Rethinking the Issues of Priority and Historical Reliability       Joel E. Anderson and Pieter M. Venter

The Openness of God: Does Prayer Change God?              William D. Barrick

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 37                                  Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 38                                   Text with commentary

Isaiah 38:10-14, 17-20                             Pope John Paul II

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 39                                   Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 40                                   Text with commentary

The Parallelism of Greater Precision: Notes from Isaiah 40 for a Theory of Hebrew Poetry     David Clines

Comfort for God’s People Isaiah 40 Behold Your God                   J. Hampton Keathley, IV

An Analysis of Isaiah 40:1-11                         Terry W. Eddinger

Isaiah 40:10-17                         Pope John Paul II

Hamsukkan in Isaiah 40:20: Some Reflections                  S. J. Sherwin

Isaiah 40:20, Towards a Solution                             Alan R. Millard & I.R Snook

Isaiah 40 – 55: Which Audience Was Addressed?                            Gary V. Smith

Isaiah 40-55 as anti-Babylonian polemic                            Eugene H. Merrill

Israel’s Mission to the Nations in Isaiah 40-55: An Update                        Michael A. Grisanti

Consolation or Confrontation: Isaiah 40-55 and the Delay of the New Exodus                      Rikki E. Watts

Isaiah 40-66: Return and Restoration                                   Michael Fishbane

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 41                                    Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 42                                    Text with commentary

The Servant of the Lord              Rosaio Pius Merendino

Isaiah 42:10-16                             Pope John Paul II

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 43                                Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 44                                Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 45                                 Text with commentary

Impulses to Global Mission in Isaiah                                         Elmer A. Martens

Servant of God                     Emil G. Hirsch

A Note on Isaiah 45:9                      Alger F. Johns

Isaiah 45:15-25                           Pope John Paul II

Is God the Author of Evil?          Walter C. Kaiser, Jr


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Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 46                                     Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 47                                      Text with commentary

What Happens to Ms Babylon in Isaiah 47, Why, and Who Says So?                  John Goldingay

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 48                                      Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 49                                       Text with commentary

My Servant, You Are Israel: A Study in Canonical Reading (Isaiah 49)    Christopher R. Seitz

Re-examining the Referent(s) of Isaiah 49:1-13                    David Kummerow

Eyes for You Alone                          Greg Herrick

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 50                                       Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 51                                        Text with commentary

The Sweetness of the Cup: Is. 51:17-23; Mt. 26:26-30, 36-46               Philip G. Ryken

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 52                                        Text with commentary

Come Out of Babylon (Isaiah 52:11)                          David Inks

The Triumph of the Suffering Servant (Isaiah 52:13 – 53:12)          Allen Ross

The Atonement in Isaiah’s Fourth Servant Song (Isaiah 52:13-53:12)                    Peter J. Gentry

The Rhetorical Role of Reiteration in the Suffering Servant Poem (Isa 52:13-53:12)                       Ronald L. Bergey

The Servant of the Lord: Language and Interpretation                         David F. Payne

The Servant of Jehovah in Isaiah and the Dead Sea Scroll                            Martin J. Wyngaarten

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 53                                 Text with commentary

As He Was in Life, So He was in Death                Greg Herrick

The Suffering Servant Hymn and Its Sequel: A New Translation              Asher Finkel

The Servant of The Lord: The Last Servant Song of Isaiah The Servant: Israel   –   Jesus – A Christian Perspective             Michel Remaud

Who’s Who and What’s What in Isaiah 53                    Gordon D. Kirchhevel

Isaiah liii.11 and Its Echoes                                         Leslie C. Allen

For What Did Christ Atone in Isaiah 53:4-5        Richard L. Mayhue

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 54                                  Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 55                                   Text with commentary

Amazing Grace                Greg Herrick

 Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 56                                    Text with commentary

A New Word on Homosexuality? Isaiah 56:1-8 as Case Study               Frederick J. Gaiser

Are You Thirsty? Then, Come: God’s Gracious Covenant of Life in Isaiah 55                 Greg Herrick

Exposition of Isaiah 55:1-3                      J Hampton Keathley III   

Isaiah 56:1-8 and the Redefining of the Restoration Judean Community                Clinton E. Hammock

Isaiah 56:4-5 Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 57                                 Text with commentary

Where Is YHWH in Isaiah 57,14-15?              S. W. Flynn

A Sermon on Isaiah 57:15                              Geerhardus Vos

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 58                                 Text with commentary

Promises, Promises! Some Exegetical Reflections on Isaiah 58                   H. G. M. Williamson

Linguistic Links Between Verses 12 and 13 of Isaiah 58                       Ron Du Preez

A Christmas Message in an Unexpected Text — Fasting and the Incarnation Isaiah 58-61; Matthew 2, Phillipians 2:1-8                   Bob Deffinbaugh

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 59                              Text with commentary

And YHWH saw and was displeased”: Mediation as human responsibility (Isaiah 59)         Mercedes L. Garcia Bachmann

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 60                               Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 61                               Text with commentary

The Spirit-filled Servant and the Kingdom of God (Isaiah 61:1-11)                    Allen Ross   

Isaiah 61:10–62:5                              Pope John Paul II

Isaiah 61:1-3(4-9) 10-11 Transferor of Privileges, an “Identikit” of the Servant of the Lord?                H.A.J. Kruger

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 62                                Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 63                                Text with commentary 

The Man Who Cried For God to Come Down (Isaiah 63:15-64:12)                Steven J. Cole

  Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 64                                 Text with commentary

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 65                                  Text with commentary

Nature’s Part in God’s Perfect Plan (Psalm 19; Romans 8:18-25; Isaiah 65:17-25)                 Bob Deffinbaugh

The Haughtiness of the Priesthood            Lena-Sofia Tiemeyer,

Isaiah 65, 20: Centenarians or Millenarians?                      A. Gardner

Yeshayahu – Isaiah – Chapter 66                                   Text with commentary

Sometimes the Center is the Wrong Place to Be: An Examination of Isaiah 66:17                Kevin Malarkey

Isaiah 66:10-14a                  Pope John Paul II

Comfort for Jerusalem: The Second Isaiah as Counselor to Refugees          William S. Morrow

IQIsab (Isaiah Scroll) A second copy of the biblical book of Isaiah from Qumran Cave 1.

The Fall of Babylon – a problem in prophetic interpretation          James E. Smith tries to answer if the fall of Babylon as prophesied by Isaiah and Jeremiah is an historical event of the past, or does it await a future fulfillment?

Satire in Isaiah’s Tyre Oracle                R. Lessing

The Book of Isaiah: Theses and Hypotheses                J. Clinton McCann, Jr

The Nazarene Branch Isaiah’s Use of the Word Nazar

1QIsa             Isaiah Scroll  –  Dead Sea Scrolls

4QpIsab        Isaiah commentary   –  Dead Sea Scrolls

Commentary on Isaiah

The Great Isaiah Scroll      Directory of Qumran Dead Sea Scroll

The Servant of Jehovah in Isaiah and the Dead Sea Scroll                            Martin J. Wyngaarten


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